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  • 1
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper investigates the link between exporting and importing activities and firm performance using a rich dataset on Egyptian and Moroccan firms. We test the export premium, self-selection and learning-by-exporting hypotheses using a number of firm characteristics. Our analysis also includes importing activities as a source of learning and considers their effects on productivity changes. A differences-in-differences matching estimator is used to address the endogeneity bias of target variables. The main results for Egyptian firms echo those reported for other countries using firm-level data, namely exporters are larger and more productive than non-exporters. In contrast, Moroccan exporters and non-exporters are strikingly similar. More specifically, no evidence is found of pre or post-entry differences in labour productivity for Moroccan firms.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; firms ; new-new trade theory ; productivity ; exporting ; panel data ; Egypt ; Morocco ; Exportindustrie ; Produktivität ; Unternehmen ; Schätzung ; Ägypten ; Marokko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: Inflows of remittances to Pakistan are being increasingly viewed as a relatively attractive source of external finance, one that can help to foster development and manage economic shocks. Remittances have become a major source of revenue, surpassing the volume of FDI and official development assistance that the country receives. This study focuses primarily on the stability, cyclicality and stabilization impacts of migrant remittances to Pakistan. It is evident that foreign inflows exhibit different types of volatility; remittances are found to be a less volatile source of external finance than FDI and ODA that are counter-cyclical and stabilizing, thus serving to steady the recipient economy in times of economic downturns. ODA appears to be acyclical and stabilizing, whereas FDI emerges as pro-cyclical and destabilizing. Furthermore, remittances are insensitive to cyclical fluctuation in source countries. We also proceed with SVAR-based identification in order to examine the responses of financial flows to innovation in receiving and source economies. We confirm the counter-cyclical mechanism of remittances with Pakistani output. In particular, our results indicate that remittance flows to Pakistan are mainly due to the economic conditions in the receiving economy.
    Keywords: E32 ; F15 ; F21 ; F22 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; remittances ; FDI ; ODA, ; business cycle ; Pakistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-03-06
    Description: In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of development aid in recipient countries. Specifically, we analyze the relationship between per-capita income and foreign aid for a maximum of 131 recipient countries over the 1960 to 2006 period. We employ annual data and 5-year averages and, contrary to the previous literature, carefully examine the time-series properties of the data. The previous literature overlooks the non-existence of a long-run relationship between aid and growth and the presence of autocorrelated error terms. To address those problems, we apply panel time-series techniques (panel unit-root tests, panel cointegration tests, and panel dynamic feasible generalized least-squares estimation [DFGLS]). Estimations with DFGLS show that aid has an insignificant or minute negative significant impact on per-capita income. This holds for countries with both above- and below-average aid-to-GDP ratios, for different levels of human development, different income levels and different regions of the world. We also find that aid has a significantly positive (although small) impact on investment, but a significant negative impact on domestic savings (crowding out) and the real exchange rate (appreciation).
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Foreign aid ; real per-capita income ; panel time-series techniques ; dynamic feasible generalized linear least squares (DFGLS)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between foreign aid and exports in recipient countries and tests for the transmission channels between aid and exports/economic development in developing countries. Most of the theoretical work emphasizes the negative impact of aid on recipient countries' exports primarily due to exchange rate appreciation, disregarding the positive impact of aid linked to the income effect. The empirical findings, in contrast, indicate that the net impact of aid on recipient countries' exports is positive and that the average return for recipients' exports is about 1.50 US$ for every aid dollar spent. The paper also estimates the effect of different types of aid (bilateral aid [from one donor to one specific recipient, and bilateral aid from all the other donors to one specific recipient], as well as multilateral aid flowing to a specific recipient) and finds that at least two types of aid have a positive and significant effect on recipients' exports, thus ruling out a major crowding out effect. It is further found that aid is hardly export-enhancing in Africa.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; International Tade ; Foreign Aid ; Recipient Exports ; Real Exchange Rate
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between foreign aid and exports in recipient countries. Most of the theoretical work emphasizes the negative impact of aid on recipient countries' exports primarily due to exchange rate appreciation, disregarding possible positive effects of aid in overcoming supply bottlenecks and promoting bilateral trade relations. Our empirical findings -all based on endogeneity-proof techniques (such as Dynamic OLS or more refined techniques) - depend very strongly on whether bilateral trade relations and autocorrelation of the disturbances are controlled for. When not controlling for these phenomena, the impact of aid is quite substantial (especially in Asia, Latin America & Caribbean) but when sound estimation techniques are applied the net impact of aid on recipient countries' exports becomes insignificant in the full 130-country sample and the subsamples: Sub-Saharan Africa & MENA, Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean. However, this rather disappointing finding is in line with the small macroeconomic impact of aid found in earlier studies.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; International trade ; foreign aid ; recipient exports ; bilateral trade relations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between bilateral and multilateral foreign aid and donor's exports. There are three primary findings from this approach. First, in the long term, the average return, in terms of an increase in the donor's level of goods exports, is approximately $ 2.15 US for every aid dollar spent on bilateral aid. Second, multilateral aid has a positive effect on export levels only in the short term, whereas in the long term, the effect is negative. Third, aid from other donors does not give rise to a displacement effect for a given donor-recipient trade relationship. This paper also makes comparisons among donors and finds that aid has a positive and significant effect on most donors' export levels.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; foreign aid ; donors ; panel data ; sample selection ; GLM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: This study examines the effect of the Everything But Arms (EBA) trade preferences regime on exports from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to the European Union (EU). With this aim, an augmented gravity model is estimated for exports from the 79 ACP countries to the EU-15 for the time period 1995 to 2005 using panel data techniques. The model estimates are used to quantify the effect of the EBA preferences on the ACP LDCs' export performance and to compare it with the impact of official development assistance. In addition to their separate effects, the combined impact of EBA and aid flows is estimated. The main results show a negative effect of the EBA regime on exports. Otherwise, the combined effect of the EBA and aid on exports is positive, supporting an EU development strategy that includes both sorts of assistance, aid and trade preferences.
    Keywords: O24 ; C23 ; F13 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; development aid ; trade preferences ; Everything But Arms ; panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between foreign aid and exports in recipient countries. Most of the theoretical work emphasizes the negative impact of aid on recipient countries' exports primarily due to exchange rate appreciation, disregarding possible positive effects of aid in promoting bilateral trade relations. The empirical findings, in contrast, indicate that the net impact of aid on recipient countries' exports is positive -even though the macroeconomic impact of aid is rather small- and that the average return for recipients' exports is about 1.50 US$ for every aid dollar spent. We argue that 'bilateral aid' seems to promote good bilateral trade relations, mutual trust and familiarity and that those factors reinforce bilateral trade, including recipient country exports. The paper also estimates the effect of different types of aid (bilateral aid versus multilateral aid flowing to a specific recipient) and studies aid's contribution to an expansion of exports in different regions of the world. It is found that aid is strongly export-enhancing in Asia and Latin America, but not in Africa.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; foreign aid ; recipient exports ; bilateral trade relations ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Export ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper investigates the link between foreign aid and exports between the two shores of the Mediterranean. The main hypothesis is that the Euro-Mediterranean Process should promote not only trade but also stronger links between the European Union (EU) and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Hence, we expect development aid to have a positive impact on exports, which could also intensify the aid-trade relationship. In particular, we expect to find higher trade volumes in both directions after the process started in 1995 and intensified in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when several bilateral free trade agreements were signed. A gravity model augmented with bilateral and multilateral aid and trade regime variables is estimated for exports and imports from recipient countries to donor countries for the period 1988 to 2007 using advanced panel data techniques. Our method addresses the endogeneity bias of the trade regime/economic integration agreement (EIA) variable, assuming that decisions to form or enlarge EIAs are slow-moving relative to trade flows.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Foreign Aid ; Euro-mediterranean Process ; Entwicklungshilfe ; EU-Europäisch ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; EU-Staaten ; MENA-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper uses an augmented gravity model of trade to investigate the link between German development aid and sectoral exports from Germany to the aid recipient countries. The findings indicate that in the long run each dollar of German aid is associated with an average increase of 0.83 US dollars of German exports of goods. The effect varies by sector and the sectors that gain the most are machinery, electrical equipment and transport equipment. By using German input-output tables and according to our estimates, the aid-induced gains in exports generate a total employment effect of about 216,000 jobs of which 52,000 jobs are created in machinery, 20,000 in transport equipment, 24,000 in electrical equipment, 23,000 in basic metals, 10,000 in food, beverages and tobacco and 78,000 in business-related services.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; foreign aid ; Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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