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  • F14  (37)
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  • 1
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: In this study, MERCOSUR's past exports to the EU under the protectionist environment of the period between 1988 and 1996 are examined and an attempt is made to determine MERCOSUR's exports' growth potential in a liberalised EU market. A sectoral study is considered indispensable since tariff and non-tariff trade barriers vary strongly among sectors. The influence of the macroeconomic environment on MERCOSUR's exports is examined in a dynamic panel analysis. A simulation study based on a quite comprehensive evaluation of EU trade barriers is performed for the Argentinean case in order to evaluate the impact of EU trade liberalisation.
    Keywords: F14 ; F13 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; MERCOSUR-EU trade ; trade barriers ; sectoral study ; panel data ; Export ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Protektionismus ; Aussenhandelsliberalisierung ; Aussenhandelsstruktur ; Schätzung ; MERCOSUR-Staaten ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper is the first to estimate the effect of two international agreements (Rotterdam Convention, RC, and the Stockholm Convention, SC) in reducing trade in hazardous substances. We estimate the effects of ratification of these agreements on imports of the affected products putting emphasis in the flows from developed countries (OECD) to developing countries (non-OECD) to capture pollution deviation. We use product level data to identify the goods subject to the conventions and the identification strategy relies on the use of difference-in-difference techniques in a panel data framework. We find that when the exporter ratifies the RC and the flow is from OECD to non-OECD countries, a significant reduction of imports in hazardous chemicals is observed after ratification. The magnitude of the effect is a cumulative decrease in imports of about 7 percent. In the case of the SC, the results show significant reductions in trade shipments from OECD to non-OECD countries in persistent organic pollutants for non-OECD importers that have ratified the convention. We observe a reduction of around 16 percent, more than double the effect found for the RC, which was expected due to the different obligations imposed by the respective conventions.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F18 ; Q53 ; Q56 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; hazardous chemicals ; persistent organic pollutants ; environmental agreements ; international trade ; gravity model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: Latin American countries have lost competitiveness in world markets in comparison to China over the last two decades. The main purpose of this study is to examine the causes of this development. To this end an augmented Dornbusch-type Ricardian' model is estimated using panel data. The explanatory variables considered are productivity, unit labor costs, unit values, trade costs, price levels, and real exchange rates; all variables are evaluated in relative terms. Due to data restrictions, China's relative exports (to the US, Argentina, Japan, Korea, the UK, Germany, and Spain) will be compared to Mexico's exports for a number of sectors over a limited period of eleven years. Panel and pooled estimation techniques (SUR estimation, panel Feasible Generalized Least Squares (panel/pooled FGLS)) will be utilized to better control for country-specific effects and correlation over time. A simulation underlines the positive impact of relative real exchange rate advantages on relative exports for the textile sector. Standardized ß-coefficients identify relative real exchange rates, relative cost levels, and relative unit values as the drivers of competitive advantage in the textile sector.
    Keywords: C23 ; F11 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Ricardian model of trade ; panel data models ; panel Feasible Generalized Least Squares ; Seemingly Unrelated (SUR) estimation ; Komparativer Kostenvorteil ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Standortwettbewerb ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Methode der kleinsten Quadrate ; China ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Latin American countries have lost competitiveness in world markets in comparison to China over the last two decades. The main purpose of this study is to examine the causes of this development. To this end an augmented Ricardian model is estimated using panel data. The explanatory variables considered are productivity, unit labor costs, unit values, trade costs, price levels (in PPP), and real exchange rates in relative terms. Due to data restrictions, China's relative exports (to the US, Argentina, Japan, Korea, UK, Germany, and Spain) will be compared to Mexico's exports for a number of sectors over a period of eleven years. Panel and pooled estimation techniques (SUR-estimation, panel Feasible Generalized Least Squares (panel/pooled FGLS)) will be utilized to better control for country-specific effects (differences between American, Argentinian, Japanese, Korean, German, British, and Spanish markets), cross-section specific (sector-specific) effects, and correlation over time.
    Keywords: C23 ; F11 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Komparativer Kostenvorteil ; Vergleich ; China ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper presents a theoretical gravity model of trade in which foreign aid is considered as a transfer instead of being part of the trade cost, as it has been previously done in the related literature. We argue that the usual specification leads to invalid out-of-sample predictions, biased coefficients and moreover it ignores heterogeneity. The proposed model is estimated for a sample of 188 countries over the period 1988-2013 using panel fixed effects and PPML techniques and the resulting trade elasticities with respect to aid are compared with those obtained from the traditional specification. The main results show that average effect of one additional US $ of aid is around 0.56$ of total imports according to our model, whereas with the alternative model an average effect of an implausible amount of 11$ of imports is obtained. In addition, a decomposed version of the model provides a new framework to disentangle the political effects of aid from the budget effects. While we consider the case of foreign aid, the modeling framework also applies to the study of other transfer, as for example remittances.
    Keywords: F14 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; development ; foreign aid ; gravity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper examines the involvement of the CEECs into regional and global production networks over the period 1999 to 2009. We employ a theoretically justified gravity model which incorporates the extensive margin of trade and accounts for firm heterogeneity. We first estimate the model for highly disaggregated exports (SITC 5-digits) in final goods, and then augment it by including the corresponding imported intermediate products from the OECD together with the usual control variables. Next, we estimate the model for each trade margin (extensive and intensive) separately to evaluate the effects of economic integration on exports and imports of each category of goods. Our results indicate that the CEECs have indeed become more integrated into regional production networks and this has had a positive impact in terms of increasing trade volumes and trade varieties between the two parts of the European continent.
    Keywords: F10 ; F14 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; gravity equation ; panel data ; production networks ; economic integration ; trade flows ; Export ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Produktionsorganisation ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Gravitationsmodell ; Ostmitteleuropa ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper estimates a gravity model of trade to evaluate the trade effects of the Euro on sectoral trade within the Euro Zone, the CFA Franc Zone and between the Eurozone and the CFA Franc Zone, when CFA countries acquired fixed rates against the non-francophone Eurozone members. The formation of the Eurozone provides a quasi-natural experiment to estimate the effects on trade of fixed exchange rates, since the change in exchange rate regime for CFA countries with all Eurozone countries but France was not trade related. This is tested using sectoral trade data for 128 countries over the period 1995-2009 and validated using a larger sample of 180 countries over the period 1973 -2013. The main departure from Frankel (2008), is the use of sectoral trade and the inclusion of bilateral-sectoral fixed effects as well as controls for multilateral resistance, namely time varying country-fixed-effects for exporters and importers, in the gravity model specification. The main results indicate that the introduction of the Euro is generally not associated with positive effects for average trade flows between the CFA Franc Zone and other Eurozone countries. However, the results differ by sector and we find that agricultural (homogeneous products) exports from CFA countries to Euro adopters increased by almost fifty (thirty) percent after the euro adoption.
    Keywords: F10 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; CFA ; Euro Effect ; Bilateral Trade ; Panel Data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Trade policy barriers are only one element of overall trade costs. Among these, and due to the decrease in the influence of tariff barriers on trade over time, institutional barriers might increase in relative importance and become a key obstacle to the movements of goods across countries. This paper quantifies and compares the impact that a number of trade facilitation and trade policy barriers have on bilateral trade flows. A theoretically justified gravity model of trade is estimated by using the methodology proposed in Baier and Bergstrand (2009) for a cross-section of countries in the year 2000. Results indicate that institutional trade barriers have a greater impact on trade flows than tariff barriers. According to these findings, trade policy negotiation efforts should focus on facilitating trade processes and should be at the forefront of multilateral negotiations.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; Tariff barriers ; trade facilitation ; sectoral trade
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: Aid is given for various purposes. Its impact on donors' exports usually depends on whether it is given for altruistic reasons (to overcome human tragedies and disasters) or in an understanding to promote development (to finance infrastructure or social projects). As to humanitarian aid the impact of aid on donors' exports will be most probably lower than in the latter case where related and unrelated imports for realizing development projects have been explicitly or implicitly agreed upon. Germany is known to be a country that ranks below average in tying its aid among the EU countries. Nonetheless there have been studies that found an extremely high positive impact of German bilateral aid on German exports. This finding will be re-examined in this study. An augmented gravity model is utilized to evaluate the impact of German bilateral aid on German exports. Stochastic and deterministic trends in the series are controlled to avoid spurious regression results.
    Keywords: F14 ; F35 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral aid ; donors' exports ; time series properties of panel data ; ECM and DOLS estimation in a panel context
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: In this paper we employ parametric and nonparametric techniques to analyse the effect of the changes registered on regional market potential on the growth of Spanish regions during the period 1860-1930. The study of the Spanish experience during these years conforms a case study that allows analyzing whether the construction of new transport infrastructure, as well as the changes in trade policy, that affected the relative market potential of the Spanish regions, ended up shaping regional growth trajectories. In order to carry out the analysis we make use of new evidence on regional inequality patterns in the long term based on recent estimations of per capita GDP for NUTS III Spanish regions (provinces) and an a la Harris measure of regional market potential that takes into account the economic distance between territories according to the changes registered in transport networks, the variations in the actual transport costs and the tariff policy followed over the period. Our results show a clear positive influence of market potential on regional economic growth, particularly along the years 1900-1930.
    Keywords: R0 ; N9 ; O18 ; N64 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; market potential ; New Economic Geography ; regional growth ; economic history
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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