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  • Entwicklungsländer  (10)
  • English  (10)
  • 1
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample of countries and testing for the stability of the estimated elasticities over time. The sample covers the period from 1975 through 2003 for different groups of countries, classified according to their income levels. Our results show that, whereas the impact of population growth on emissions is above unity and only slightly different for upper, middle, and low- income countries, urbanization, demonstrate a very different impact on emissions for low and lower-middle-income countries and upper-middle income countries.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q4 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; CO2 emissions ; developing countries ; panel data ; population growth ; urbanization ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Urbanisierung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of CO2 for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries.
    Keywords: Q54 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; environmental Kuznets Curve ; Kyoto Protocol ; CDM ; Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Klimaschutz ; Umweltabkommen ; Clean Development Mechanism ; Industriestaaten ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The present paper sets out to aid in the development of "environmental load displacement" indicators. Developing the notion of the "environmental memory" of physical flows, we estimated embodied pollution in trade of 18 industrialized countries with a) the rest of the world and b) developing countries, from 1976 to 1994. We found that in the last years of analysis, total imports of Japan, USA and Western Europe have entailed, in general, larger air pollutant emissions than local exports. The balance of embodied emissions in trade (BEET) seems follow an inverted-U shape across time in Japan and Western Europe, and an N-shape in the US. In the period of analysis, Japanese and European environmental terms of trade with developing countries have "improved", whereas American environmental terms of trade with developing countries tended to "deteriorate" over time. Although there is no statistical trend between income and embodied emissions in imports in a cross-section analysis, there does seem to be a positive relationship between both variables at a national level. The results suggest that, despite many shortcomings, this type of assessment of embodied environmental pressures in inter-country physical flows may shed useful insights on the international aspects of sustainable development. Particularly, on the distribution of the environmental costs of trade and the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Environmental terms of trade ; embodied pollution ; ecologically unequal exchange ; Environmental Kuznets Curve ; international trade ; BEET ; Umweltbelastung ; Terms of Trade ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Industriestaaten ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between foreign aid and exports in recipient countries. Most of the theoretical work emphasizes the negative impact of aid on recipient countries' exports primarily due to exchange rate appreciation, disregarding possible positive effects of aid in promoting bilateral trade relations. The empirical findings, in contrast, indicate that the net impact of aid on recipient countries' exports is positive -even though the macroeconomic impact of aid is rather small- and that the average return for recipients' exports is about 1.50 US$ for every aid dollar spent. We argue that 'bilateral aid' seems to promote good bilateral trade relations, mutual trust and familiarity and that those factors reinforce bilateral trade, including recipient country exports. The paper also estimates the effect of different types of aid (bilateral aid versus multilateral aid flowing to a specific recipient) and studies aid's contribution to an expansion of exports in different regions of the world. It is found that aid is strongly export-enhancing in Asia and Latin America, but not in Africa.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; foreign aid ; recipient exports ; bilateral trade relations ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Export ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: In this paper we investigate the relationship between per capita income and foreign aid for a panel of 131 (alternatively 52) recipient countries over the period 1960 to 2006 by employing annual data and 5-year averages. Reliance on standard panel estimation techniques, such as 2-ways FE estimation, panel GMM and SUR estimation, points to some pitfalls (impossibility of possible cointegration between aid and growth, autocorrelation of the error terms, endogeneity of the variables) that must be dealt with panel time series techniques (such as panel unit root test, panel cointegration tests and panel dynamic feasible generalized least squares estimation (DFGLS)). Estimations with DFGLS show that aid has an insignificant or a minute negative significant impact on per capita income. This result holds for countries with above- and below-average aid-to-GDP ratios, for countries with different levels of human development, with different income levels and from different regions of the world. It can be shown that by not controlling for autocorrelation, one erroneously attributes to aid a larger, significant negative impact on per capita income. We also find that aid has a significant positive (even though) small impact on investment, but a negative and significant impact on domestic savings (crowding out) and the real exchange rate (appreciation).
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; C23 ; C51 ; ddc:330 ; foreign aid ; real per capita income ; panel time series techniques ; dynamic feasible generalized linear least squares (DFGLS) ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Volkseinkommen ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Schätzung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper proposes a new analytical framework with which to analyze the determinants of global CO2 emissions. It contributes to the existing literature by examining the determinants of CO2 emissions using a flexible functional form (transcendental logarithmic model), taking into account the presence of dynamic effects and allowing for heterogeneity in the sample of countries. The sample covers 121 countries and the period analyzed extends from 1975 through 2003. Two main results emerge. First, a static specification is rejected against a dynamic model. Second, the data also reject a general specification for all countries; hence slopeheterogeneity in the estimated coefficients has to be modeled. Conversely, the STIRPAT model is generally accepted for high-income countries, whereas for developing countries several interaction terms also play a role in explaining CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q4 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; CO2 emissions ; developing countries ; panel data ; population growth ; urbanization ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Urbanisierung ; Panel ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper uses a static and dynamic gravity model of trade to investigate the link between German development aid and exports from Germany to the recipient countries. The findings indicate that in the long run,German aid is associated with an increase in exports of goods that is larger than the aid flow, with a point estimate of 140 percent of the aid given. In addition, the evolution of the estimated coefficients over time shows an effect that is consistently positive but which oscillates over time. Interestingly, in the period from 2001 to 2005, a steady increase in the effect of aid on trade can be observed following a decrease in this phenomenon in the second half of the nineties. The paper also distinguishes among recipient countries and finds that the return on aid measured by German exports is higher for aid to countries considered strategic aid recipients” by the German government.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Foreign Aid ; Germany ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Deutsch ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Gravitationsmodell ; Entwicklungsländer ; Export ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Foreign aid is given for a combination of economic, political, and humanitarian motives. While its impact on economic development in recipient countries has been the main focus of research recently, we concentrate on the question to what extent it also promotes donor countries’ exports. We examine this issue using Germany as a case study where the positive impact of aid on exports has been found to be extremely high. Using more advanced methods, we compute an average return (between EUR 1.49 to EUR 1.72) of one EUR of aid spent, well below previous findings, but still surprisingly large and robust.
    Keywords: F14 ; F35 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral aid ; donors' exports ; time series properties of panel data ; ECM and DOLS estimation in a panel context ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Deutsch ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Gravitationsmodell ; Entwicklungsländer ; Export ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental quality and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2) for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries and highlight the differences behind the driving forces of CO2 emissions for those two groups of countries. Finally, it is still too early to predict accurately the expected effects of CDM projects on emissions.
    Keywords: Q54 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Kyoto Protocol ; CDM ; Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Klimaschutz ; Umweltabkommen ; Clean Development Mechanism ; Industriestaaten ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between bilateral and multilateral foreign aid and exports. There are three primary findings from this approach. First, in the long term, the average return, in terms of an increase in the donor's level of goods exports, is approximately $ 2.15 US for every aid dollar spent on bilateral aid. Second, multilateral aid has a positive effect on export levels only in the short term, whereas in the long term, the effect is negative. Third, aid from other donors does not give rise to a displacement effect for a given donor-recipient trade relationship. This paper also makes comparisons among donors and finds that aid has a positive and significant effect on most donors' export levels.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; foreign aid ; donors ; panel data ; sample selection ; GLM ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Export ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Entwicklungsländer ; Industriestaaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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