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  • 1
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Numerical Model ; Estuary ; Open Boundary Condition ; Three dimensional ; Hydrothermal Biscayne Bay ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A three-dimensional time dependent free-surface model has been used to simulate the velocity and temperature distributions in Biscayne Bay, an estuarine basin in South Florida. Comparisons with tide gauge data and airborne infrared temperature data have been made. Analyses of three-dimensional velocity structure, phase relationships of velocity with depth and horizontal location have been conducted.One of the major concerns with three-dimensional models is the specification of conditions at open-boundaries, since it is rare that complete time dependent variations of variables at these boundaries are available. Two sets of approximate boundary conditions at the Biscayne Bay-Atlantic Ocean interface have been used for computations. It was found that specification of averaged surface height variation at open boundaries yield significantly better results than specification of estimated values of velocity.
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Shallow Water Equations ; Boundary Fitted Grids ; Time Dependent Solution Domains ; Free Surface Problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: This paper gives the results of an application of the SWEs (shallow water equations) to a part of the Hamburg harbour area, which is a complex flow domain, using the BFG approach, outlined in Part I. The results of a grid doubling procedure generating the desired computational grid from a coarse initial mesh are also presented. A second class of problems which is addressed, demands time-dependent co-ordinate systems. The problems which are solved are the free surface problem for a moving wave which eventually breaks and for a wave which is reflected by the solid walls of a rectangular basin.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Boundary Fitted Co-ordinate System ; Shallow Water Equations ; Rotating Containers ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Numerical solutions are often inaccurate because conventional co-ordinate systems do not represent the complex physical boundaries accurately. In the present work, the numerical solution of linear shallow water wave equations has been obtained by transforming the physical domain into a rectangular computational domain using elliptic differential operators. This work is part of a programme to develop three-dimensional body-fit grid systems for environmental flows. Solutions have been obtained for a cylindrical container and also a parabolic container. The initial conditions chosen are the ones for which analytical solutions exist. The numerical solutions compare well with analytical solutions.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Computational Fluids Dynamics ; Numerical Grid Generation ; Two-dimensional Fluid Flow Problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: In this paper the generation of general curvilinear co-ordinate systems for use in selected two-dimensional fluid flow problems is presented. The curvilinear co-ordinate systems are obtained from the numerical solution of a system of Poisson equations. The computational grids obtained by this technique allow for curved grid lines such that the boundary of the solution domain coincides with a grid line. Hence, these meshes are called boundary fitted grids (BFG). The physical solution area is mapped onto a set of connected rectangles in the transformed (computational) plane which form a composite mesh. All numerical calculations are performed in the transformed plane. Since the computational domain is a rectangle and a uniform grid with mesh spacings Δξ = Δη = 1 (in two-dimensions) is used, the computer programming is substantially facilitated. By means of control functions, which form the r.h.s. of the Poisson equations, the clustering of grid lines or grid points is governed. This allows a very fine resolution at certain specified locations and includes adaptive grid generation. The first two sections outline the general features of BFGs, and in section 3 the general transformation rules along with the necessary concepts of differential geometry are given. In section 4 the transformed grid generation equations are derived and control functions are specified. Expressions for grid adaptation arc also presented. Section 5 briefly discusses the numerical solution of the transformed grid generation equations using sucessive overrelaxation and shows a sample calculation where the FAS (full approximation scheme) multigrid technique was employed. In the companion paper (Part II), the application of the BFG method to selected fluid flow problems is addressed.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: unsteady flows ; incompressible viscous flows ; onset of asymmetry ; Navier-Stokes equations ; finite difference method ; bluff bodies ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A computational study of the development of two- dimensional unsteady viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder and elliptic cylinders is undertaken at a Reynolds number of 10,000. A higher- order upwind scheme is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method in order to study the onset of computed asymmetry around bluff bodies. For the computed cases the ellipses develop asymmetry much earlier than the circular cylinder. The receptivity of the computed flows in the presence of discrete roughness and surface vibration is studied. Finally, the role of discrete roughness in triggering asymmetry for flow past a circular cylinder is studied and compared with flow visualization experiments at Re=10,000
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An explicit expression for the stiffness matrix is worked out for a triangular plate bending element considering the effect of transverse shear deformation. The element has twelve nodes on the sides and four nodes internal to it. The formulation is displacement type and the use of area co-ordinates makes it possible to obtain the shape functions explicitly. Separate polynomials are assumed for transverse displacement and rotations. To obtain the element stiffness matrix no matrix inversion or numerical integration need be carried out and only a few matrix multiplications of low order are necessary. The element, which is initially of thirty five degrees of freedom, can be reduced to a thirty degrees of freedom one by condensation of the internal nodes. An interesting feature of the element developed is that the values of nodal moments computed at a node point, considering different elements surrounding the node, do not vary significantly. Thus the nodal moments can be obtained directly at node points. Also, the element does not give rise to any inconvenience like locking, even for very thin plates. The straightforward approach in formation of the element stiffness will cut down the storage space considerably and will also call for less CPU time, thus making the use of the element well suited to low capacity computers. A number of plate bending problems have been worked out using the present element for different thickness to side ratios and a comparison has been made with the available results. Good accuracy has been observed in all cases, even for a small number of elements.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The results of the finite element analysis of 3-ply laminated conical shells with light core for linear panel flutter are presented and certain advantages of such shells discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new formulation of an eighteen-degrees-of-freedom higher-order triangular plate bending element using triangular area co-ordinates is presented. The displacement function w is taken as the complete fifth-order polynomial in area co-ordinates. The normal slope along an edge of the triangle is constrained to vary cubically. The twenty-one constants are expressed explicity in terms of eighteen degrees of freedom. The element stiffness matrix is expressed as a product of component matrices for which explicit expressions are developed and presented. No numerical inversion or integration is necessary. The formulation is expected to be useful specially for microcomputers.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0748-8025
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Plate-bending elements with the inclusion of transverse shear effects are important in analysing problems of transverse bending of relatively thick plates. Several such elements are available. Recently another element with a triangular geometry has been suggested. The construction of the element stiffness matrix follows conventional procedure which involves rigorous matrix computations. An alternative method of obtaining the stiffness matrix explicitly for such an element is suggested in the present work. Thus the process of matrix inversion and a considerable degree of matrix multiplications can be avoided in constructing the element stiffness matrix. Explicit expressions worked out may be conveniently used in microcomputers.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Deficiencies of different existing models on ‘Reservoir Induced Seismicity’ have been discussed and a new mathematical model, which enhances a better understanding of triggering mechanism in terms of changes in effective stresses, in situ stresses and water level variations, has been discussed in this paper. In the model fractured rock is simulated by a fluid-filled elastic material subject to Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The model has been found to be capable of responding effectively to site specific attributes. It can recognize and explain the phenomenon of time lag observed in several actual cases. It is also capable of simulating stabilization of rock-reservoir system after a period of activities that follow the initial stage of filling. One dimensional and two dimensional, isotropic and anisotropic cases have been analysed and the model predictions have been found to agree qualitatively with the field observations.
    Additional Material: 23 Ill.
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