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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0748-8025
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Czochralski crystal growth ; Finite element method ; Free boundary problem ; Incompressible fluid flow ; Heat transfer ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A finite element algorithm is presented for simultaneous calculation of the steady state, axisymmetric flows and the crystal, melt/crystal and melt/ambient interface shapes in the Czochralski technique for crystal growth from the melt. The analysis is based on mixed Lagrangian finite element approximations to the velocity, temperature and pressure fields and isoparametric approximations to the interface shape. Galerkin's method is used to reduce the problem to a non-linear algebraic set, which is solved by Newton's method. Sample solutions are reported for the thermophysical properties appropriate for silicon, a low-Prandtl-number semiconductor, and for GGG, a high-Prandtl-number oxide material. The algorithm is capable of computing solutions for both materials at realistic values of the Grashof number, and the calculations are convergent with mesh refinement. Flow transitions and interface shapes are calculated as a function of increasing flow intensity and compared for the two material systems. The flow pattern near the melt/gas/crystal tri-junction has the asymptotic form predicted by an inertialess analysis assuming the meniscus and solidification interfaces are fixed.
    Additional Material: 27 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Co-ordinate mapping ; Finite element method ; Free-boundary ; Solidification ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A new boundary-conforming mapping is developed for the calculation of highly deformed cellular solidification interfaces in a model of directional solidification of a binary alloy. The mapping is derived through a variational fomulation that is designed so that the grid penetrates the grooves between cells along the interface without causing a loss of ellipticity of the mapping equations. A finite element/Newton method is presented for simultaneous solution of the free boundary problem described by the solutal model of directional solidification and the mapping equations. Results are compared to previous calculations and demonstrate the importance of accurate representation of the interface shape for understanding the solution structure.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0271-2091
    Keywords: Local mesh refinement ; Free boundary ; Finite element method ; Co-ordinate mapping ; Solidification ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A new method is presented for the solution of free-boundary problems using Lagrangian finite element approximations defined on locally refined grids. The formulation allows for direct transition from coarse to fine grids without introducing non-conforming basis functions. The calculation of elemental stiffness matrices and residual vectors are unaffected by changes in the refinement level, which are accounted for in the loading of elemental data to the global stiffness matrix and residual vector. This technique for local mesh refinement is combined with recently developed mapping methods and Newton's method to form an efficient algorithm for the solution of free-boundary problems, as demonstrated here by sample calculations of cellular interfacial microstructure during directional solidification of a binary alloy.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Sparse matrices composed of a central band and augmented dense rows and columns are becoming prevalent in the numerical solution of a large class of boundary and initial-value problems. A Fortran Subroutine ARROW is presented for the LU decomposition and solution of linear equation systems with such a structure. The computational speed of the program is compared in MFLOPS (millions of floating point operations per second) to the LINPACK benchmark for the solution of a dense linear system and is found to be of comparable speed on both supercomputers and minicomputers. Use of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) available on most machines significantly enhances the speed of ARROW.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A quasi-steady-state, integrated system model describing high temperature heat transfer, solidification and the action of capillarity in the Czochralski crystal growth process is solved by a finite element/Newton method. The numerical analysis couples the calculation of the temperature field in all phases and the determination of the melt/crystal and melt/gas interfaces and the crystal radius free boundaries. The analysis includes conductive heat transfer in the melt, crystal, crucible, pedestal, heater and the surrounding insulation and diffuse-grey radiation, which couples the heat transfer between surfaces, the crystal radius and the melt/gas free boundary through the view factors. Finite element approximations are used to reduce the entire problem to a coupled set of non-linear algebraic equations. These are solved simultaneously by Newton's method with the Jacobian matrix computed by a combination of closed form expressions and finite difference approximations. Quadratic convergence of the Newton iteration is demonstrated along with a factor of four increase in computational efficiency over a successive iteration procedure that decouples the calculation of radiation from the rest of the heat transfer model.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The decomposition of a block tridiagonal matrix into the product of block lowe and upper matrices is described. The cost of solving a block tridiagonal system of equations is given and compared to profile gaussian elimination. The desirability of a less expensive method is coupled to physical intuition about a common problem of solving a slowly varying sequence of such systems to motivate an iterative method based on residual correction. The method is described and convergence criteria are derived. An expression of the cost is developed and is shown to compare favourably with decomposition in many cases. Problems and advantages in computer implementation of the method are discussed and results of tests of a particular implementation on a well-known problem are given.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Three formulations of the boundary element method (BEM) and one of the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) are compared according to accuracy and efficiency for the spatial discretization of two-dimensional, moving-boundary problems based on Laplace's equation. The same Euler-predictor, trapezoid-corrector scheme for time integration is used for all four methods. The model problems are on either a bounded or a semi-infinite strip and are formulated so that closed-form solutions are known. Infinite elements are used with both the BEM and FEM techniques for the unbounded domain. For problems with the bounded region, the BEM using the free-space Green's function and piecewise quadratic interpolating functions (QBEM) is more accurate and efficient than the BEM with linear interpolation. However, the FEM with biquadratic basis functions is more efficient for a given accuracy requirement than the QBEM, except when very high accuracy is demanded. For the unbounded domain, the preferred method is the BEM based on a Green's function that satisfies the lateral symmetry conditions and which leads to discretization of the potential only along the moving surface. This last formulation is the only one that reliably satisfies the far-field boundary condition.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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