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  • Effusion rates  (1)
  • Lau Basin  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key words TM ; Lava flow ; Thermal flux ; Effusion rates ; AVHRR ; Pu'u 'O'o ; Kupaianaha
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  We present a thermal model to calculate the total thermal flux for lava flowing in tubes, on the surface, or under shallow water. Once defined, we use the total thermal flux to estimate effusion rates for active flows at Kilauea, Hawaii, on two dates. Input parameters were derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), field and laboratory measurements. Using these parameters we obtain effusion rates of 1.76±0.57 and 0.78±0.27 m3 s–1 on 23 July and 11 October 1991, respectively. These rates are corroborated by field measurements of 1.36±0.14 and 0.89±0.09 m3 s–1 for the same dates (Kauahikaua et al. 1996). Using weather satellite (AVHRR) data of lower spatial resolution, we obtain similar effusion rates for an additional 26 dates between the two TM-derived measurements. We assume that, although total effusion rates at the source declined over the period, the shut down of the ocean entry meant that effusion rates for the surface flows alone remained stable. Such synergetic use of remotely sensed data provides measurements that can (a) contribute to monitoring flow-field evolution, and (b) provide reliable numerical data for input into rheological and thermal models. We look forward to being able to produce estimates for effusion rates using data from high-spatial-resolution sensors in the earth observing system (EOS) era, such as Landsat 7, the hyperspectral imager, the advanced spaceborne thermal emission spectrometer, and the advanced land imager.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7 (2006): Q11022, doi:10.1029/2006GC001324.
    Description: We report evidence for active hydrothermal venting along two back-arc spreading centers of the NE Lau Basin: the Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center (FRSC) and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). The ridge segments investigated here are of particular interest as the potential source of a mid-water hydrothermal plume (1500–2000 m depth) which extends more than 2000 km across the SW Pacific Ocean dispersing away from an apparent origin close to the most northeastern limits of the Lau Basin. Our results indicate the presence of at least four new hydrothermal plume sources, three along the FRSC and one on the NELSC, the latter situated within 150 km of the maximum for the previously identified SW Pacific regional-scale plume. However, TDFe and TDMn concentrations in the southernmost FRSC plume that we have identified only reach values of 19 and 13 nmol/L and dissolved 3He anomalies in the same plume are also small, both in relation to the SW Pacific plume and to local background, which shows evidence for extensive 3He enrichment throughout the entire Lau Basin water column. Our results reveal no evidence for a single major point hydrothermal source anywhere in the NE Lau Basin. Instead, we conclude that the regional-scale SW Pacific hydrothermal plume most probably results from the cumulative hydrothermal output of the entire topographically restricted Lau Basin, discharging via its NE-most corner.
    Description: This research was funded jointly by NSF's Ridge 2000 Program (OCE-0242002 and OCE-0242618), by the NOAA Vents Program, and by core strategic funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (UK).
    Keywords: Hydrothermal ; Exploration ; Lau Basin ; SW Pacific
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 14830812 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
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