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  • Earth Resources and Remote Sensing  (23)
  • 2015-2019  (7)
  • 2000-2004  (16)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Seasonal forecasts made by coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are increasingly able to provide skillful forecasts of climate anomalies. At some centers, the capabilities of these models are being expanded to represent carbon-climate feedbacks including ocean biogeochemistry (OB), terrestrial biosphere (TB) interactions, and fires. These advances raise the question of whether such models can support skillful forecasts of carbon fluxes.Here, we examine whether land and ocean carbon flux anomalies associated with the 2015-16 El Nino could have been predicted months in advance. This El Nino was noteworthy for the magnitude of the ocean temperature perturbation, the skill with which this perturbation was predicted, and the extensive satellite observations that can be used to track its impact. We explore this topic using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model, which routinely produces an ensemble of seasonal climate forecasts, and a suite of offline dynamical and statistical models that estimate carbon flux processes. Using GEOS forecast fields from 2015-16 to force flux model hindcasts shows that these models are able to reproduce significant features observed by satellites. Specifically, OB hindcasts are able to predict anomalies in chlorophyll distributions with lead times of 3-4 months. The ability of TB hindcasts to reproduce NDVI anomalies is driven by the skill of the climate forecast, which is greatest at short lead times over tropical landmasses. Statistical fire forecasts driven by ocean climate indices are able to predict burned area in the tropics with lead times of 3-12 months. We also integrate the ocean and land hindcast fluxes into the GEOS GCM to examine the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon dioxide anomaly and compare with satellite and ground-based observations.While seasonal forecasting remains an active area of research, these results demonstrate that forecasts of carbon flux processes can support a variety of applications, potentially allowing scientists to understand carbon-climate feedbacks as they happen and to capitalize on more flexible satellite technologies that allow areas of interest to be targeted with lead times of weeks to months. We also provide a first glimpse at the spring 2019 carbon forecast using the GEOS-based forecasting system.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: B51E-1990 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN64286 , American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting; Dec 10, 2018 - Dec 14, 2018; Washington, D.C.; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Earth science research and application requirements for multispectral data have often been driven by currently available remote sensing technology. Few parametric studies exist that specify data required for certain applications. Consequently, data requirements are often defined based on the best data available or on what has worked successfully in the past. Since properites such as spatial resolution, swath width, spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), data quantization, and band-to-band registration drive sensor platform and spaceraft system architecture and cost, analysis of these criteria is important to objectively optimize system design. Remote sensing data requirements are also linked to calibration and characterization methods. Parameters such as spatial resolution, radiometric accuracy, and geopositional accuracy affect the complexity and cost of calibration methods. However, there are few studies that quantify the true accuracies required for specific problems. As calibration methods and standards are proposed, it is important that they be tied to well-known data requirements. The Application Research Toolbox (ART) developed at Stennis Space Center provides a simulation-based method for multispectral data requirements development. The ART produces simulated data sets from hyperspectral data through band synthesis. Parameters such as spectral band shape and width, SNR, data quantization, spatial resolution, and band-to-band registration can be varied to create many different simulated data products. Simulated data utility can then be assessed for different applications so that requirements can be better understood. This paper describes the ART and its applicability for rigorously deriving remote sensing data requirements.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: SE-2002-00010-SSC , International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Commission I Mid-Term Symposium; Nov 08, 2002 - Nov 15, 2002; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold LandProcesses Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser Meso-cell Study Area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters Facility, in Fraser, CO USA.The 100-m x 100-m site consists of a small open field, a managed dense canopy and an open, mixed age canopy. Unlike the other components of the experiment, which focus on spatial distributions at relatively brief snapshots in time, measurements at the local scale site focused on the temporal domain.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality assurance/quality control analyses were performed on each dataset. Cross sections extracted form the high density and then the decimated datasets were individually input into an H&H model to determine the model's sensitivity to topographic variation and the effect of that variation on the resulting water profiles. Additional analysis was performed on the Brownsville, Texas, LIDAR data to determine the percentage of returns that "penetrated" various types of canopy or vegetative cover. It is hoped that the results of these studies will benefit state and local communities as they consider the post spacing at which to acquire LIDAR data (which affects cost) and will benefit FEMA as the Agency assesses the use of different technologies for updating National Flood Insurance Program and related products.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: SSTI-2220-0003-ESAD
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the utility of existing datasets and products as well as to specify the performance of new sensors and products. Examples of simulations performed for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission illustrate how various parameters affect system and product performance. Specific examples include the effects of ground sample distance, MTF, and band-to-band registration on various products.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: SE-2003-09-00084-SSC , ISPRS Commission 1/Working Group 2 International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration; Dec 02, 2003 - Dec 05, 2003; Gulfport, MS; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Scientists at NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center. This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data they acquire. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the techniques used to characterize data from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active LIDAR systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible through long-wave infrared remote sensing systems and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed include: 1) The use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations; 2) Additional sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States; 3) The need for a standardized technique to be adopted by CEOS and other organizations.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/SE-2002-03-00019-SSC , ISPRS Commission I Mid-Term Symposium; Nov 10, 2002 - Nov 15, 2002; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) has been designed to advance our understanding of the terrestrial cryosphere. Developing a more complete understanding of fluxes, storage, and transformations of water and energy in cold land areas is a critical focus of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, the NASA Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) Initiative, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP). The movement of water and energy through cold regions in turn plays a large role in ecological activity and biogeochemical cycles. Quantitative understanding of cold land processes over large areas will require synergistic advancements in 1) understanding how cold land processes, most comprehensively understood at local or hillslope scales, extend to larger scales, 2) improved representation of cold land processes in coupled and uncoupled land-surface models, and 3) a breakthrough in large-scale observation of hydrologic properties, including snow characteristics, soil moisture, the extent of frozen soils, and the transition between frozen and thawed soil conditions. The CLPX Plan has been developed through the efforts of over 60 interested scientists that have participated in the NASA Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG). This group is charged with the task of assessing, planning and implementing the required background science, technology, and application infrastructure to support successful land surface hydrology remote sensing space missions. A major product of the experiment will be a comprehensive, legacy data set that will energize many aspects of cold land processes research. The CLPX will focus on developing the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. The experiment will particularly emphasize developing a strong synergism between process-oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing. The experimental design is a multi-sensor, multi-scale (1-ha to 160,000 km ^ {2}) approach to providing the comprehensive data set necessary to address several experiment objectives. A description focusing on the microwave remote sensing components (ground, airborne, and spaceborne) of the experiment will be presented.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Specialist Meeting on Microwave Remote Sensing; Nov 05, 2001 - Nov 09, 2001; Boulder, CO; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: JPL-CL-16-1370 , International Conference on GPS Radio Occultation (ICGPSRO); Mar 09, 2016 - Mar 11, 2016; Taipei; Taiwan, Province of China
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of snow depth, snow density in three cm intervals, an integrated snow pack density and snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow pack physical properties from snow pit evaluation taken in 1994 and 1996. The data were collected from several sites in both the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA). A variety of standard tools were used to measure the snow pack properties, including a meter stick (snow depth), a 100 cc snow density cutter, a dial stem thermometer, and the Canadian snow sampler as used by HYD-4 to obtain a snow pack-integrated measure of SWE. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and the transmissivity of gases through the snow. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The snow measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-209891/VOL22 , Rept-2000-03136-0/VOL22 , NAS 1.15:209891/VOL22
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set includes measurements of wind speed and direction; air temperature; relative humidity; and canopy, trunk, and snow surface temperatures within three forest types. The data were collected in the southern study area/Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) (1994), and SSA-OBS (Old Black Spruce), and SSA-OA (Old Aspen) (1996). Measurements were taken for three days in 1994 and four days at each site in 1996. These measurements were intended to be short term to allow the relationship between subcanopy measurements and those collected above the forest canopy to be determined. The subcanopy estimates of wind speed were used in a snow melt model to help predict the timing of snow ablation. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy meteorological measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-209891/VOL23 , Rept-2000-03136-0/VOL23 , NAS 1.15:209891/VOL23
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