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  • ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION  (476)
  • 1980-1984  (476)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: LO-726925 , RCI-TR-005 , NASA-CR-164369 , JPL-9950-536
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper presents an overview of photovoltaic systems applications since the initiation of the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program in 1975. Experiences with these applications are summarized and some conclusions are drawn. Implications for future research, technology development and application experiments are drawn from the experiences to date.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: Photovoltaic Specialists Conference; January 7-10, 1980; San Diego, CA
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Results from a study of the disk MHD generator are presented. Both open and closed cycle disk systems were investigated. Costing of the open cycle disk components (nozzle, channel, diffuser, radiant boiler, magnet and power management) was done. However, no detailed costing was done for the closed cycle systems. Preliminary plant design for the open cycle systems was also completed. Based on the system study results, an economic assessment of the open cycle systems is presented. Costs of the open cycle disk conponents are less than comparable linear generator components. Also, costs of electricity for the open cycle disk systems are competitive with comparable linear systems. Advantages of the disk design simplicity are considered. Improvements in the channel availability or a reduction in the channel lifetime requirement are possible as a result of the disk design.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-TM-82609 , DOE/NASA/10769-17 , E-849 , Symp. on Engr. Aspects of Magnetohydrodyn.; 15-17 Jun. 1981; Tullahoma, TN; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-TM-81658 , E-675 , DOE/NASA/1060-4 , SAE Intern. Eng. Congr. and Exposition,; 23-27 Feb. 1981; Detroit, MI; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The viability of low emission nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas turbine combustors for industrial and utility application. Thirteen different concepts were evolved and most were tested. Acceptable performance was demonstrated for four of the combustors using ERBS fuel and ultralow NOx emissions were obtained for lean catalytic combustion. Residual oil and coal derived liquids containing fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) were also used at test fuels, and it was shown that staged rich/lean combustion was effective in minimizing the conversion of FBN to NOx. The rich/lean concept was tested with both modular and integral combustors. While the ceramic lined modular configuration produced the best results, the advantages of the all metal integral burners make them candidates for future development. An example of scaling the laboratory sized combustor to a 100 MW size engine is included in the report as are recommendations for future work.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-165482 , DOE/NASA/0146-1 , NAS 1.26:165482
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-TM-81708 , DOE/NASA/2593-24 , E-737
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-159634 , DOE/NASA/0052-79/1
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A critical technology base for utility and industrial gas turbines by planning the use of coal-derived fuels was studied. Development tasks were included in the following areas: (1) Combustion - investigate the combustion of coal-derived fuels and methods to minimize the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials - understand and minimize hot corrosion; (3) system studies - integrate and focus the technological efforts. A literature survey of coal-derived fuels was completed and a NOx emissions model was developed. Flametube tests of a two-stage (rich-lean) combustor defined optimum equivalence ratios for minimizing NOx emissions. Sector combustor tests demonstrated variable air control to optimize equivalence ratios over a wide load range and steam cooling of the primary zone liner. The catalytic combustion of coal-derived fuels was demonstrated. The combustion of coal-derived gases is very promising. A hot-corrosion life prediction model was formulated and verified with laboratory testing of doped fuels. Fuel additives to control sulfur corrosion were studied. The intermittent application of barium proved effective. Advanced thermal barrier coatings were developed and tested. Coating failure modes were identified and new material formulations and fabrication parameters were specified. System studies in support of the thermal barrier coating development were accomplished.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.15:83019 , E-1455 , NASA-TM-83019 , DOE/NASA/10350-35
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technical feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) 1986 overall price goal of $0.70/watt was investigated. With the silicon-on-ceramic (SOC) approach, a low-cost ceramic substrate is coated with large-grain polycrystalline silicon by unidirectional solidification of molten silicon. This effort was divided into several areas of investigation in order to most efficiently meet the goals of the program. These areas include: (1) dip-coating; (2) continuous coating designated SCIM-coating, and acronym for Silicon Coating by an Inverted Meniscus (SCIM); (3) material characterization; (4) cell fabrication and evaluation; and (5) theoretical analysis. Both coating approaches were successful in producing thin layers of large grain, solar-cell-quality silicon. The dip-coating approach was initially investigated and considerable effort was given to this technique. The SCIM technique was adopted because of its scale-up potential and its capability to produce more conventiently large areas of SOC.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-163476 , DOE/JPL-954356-80/15 , JPL-9950-617
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