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  • Drosophila melanogaster  (2)
  • Growth rate  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amazonia ; Batoidea ; Brazil ; Captive breeding ; Chondrichthyes ; Colombia ; Elasmobranchii ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Potamotrygonidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Observations of reproductive features and body measurements were made on wild-caught, freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro, from the Amazon drainage of western Brazil and southern Colombia. Further observations were made in Detroit's Belle Isle Aquarium on a captive pair of P. motoro and their descendants, which constitute the first known captive breeding colony of potamotrygonids. The gross structure and function of female and male reproductive systems are described. There is no obvious difference between those of the two species. They are aplacentally viviparous, the young being nourished in advanced stages by uterine milk secreted by trophonemata. Size at onset and completion of sexual maturation, breeding season and behavior, gestation period, litter size and sex ratios are discussed. Up to 21 proportional measurements were made on several fetal and postnatal stages of both species. Several proportional changes occur in very early fetal life, but most body proportions undergo only minor changes from advanced fetal through adult stages. A growth curve is proposed for P. motoro based on observations of the captive colony.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Batoids ; Chondrichthyes ; Costa Rica ; Elasmobranchs ; Euryhalinity ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Isolation of population ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Of a total of 377 Pristis perotteti tagged in the Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan System, 214 (56.8% were recovered. Eighty were recovered at the original tagging site; four moved downstream the full length of the river; and 127 tagged at the source of the river were recovered in all parts of the lake. Only one was recovered in a different river system, 58 km down the coast from the main mouth of the Río San Juan. A life span of 30 years is suggested, with rapid growth (30–40 cm per year) in the first three years, slowing to about 4 or 5 cm per year in the later years of life. Maximum sizes collected were 384 cm for males, 429 cm for females, smaller than maximum lengths reported elsewhere. The lake sawfish are not physically landlocked, but individuals remain in fresh water for very long periods; parturition takes place in fresh water; all sizes are found in the lake; and it appears that this stock finds all of its ecological needs met in the lake. Individuals may spend all of their lives in fresh water, although, as a species, P. perotteti has not completely abandoned the sea, since some are known to occur in salt water. The Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan sawfish are a discrete stock, with only limited gene flow with neighboring stocks. P. perotteti is farther along in its adaptation to fresh water, in being able both to osmoregulate and reproduce there, than other known euryhaline elasmobranchs, except for the African stingray, Dasyatis garouaensis, of the Niger-Benue System, and the completely adapted South American freshwater rays (family Potamotrygonidae).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster ; Transcription map ; Faint bands ; Interband chromatin ; Polytene chromosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Urate oxidase mRNA and five other transcripts map along 38 kb of DNA in the region 28C on the Drosophila melanogaster second chromosome. Three biotinylated restriction fragments from this 38 kb of DNA, one from each end and one from the middle, were individually hybridized in situ to slightly stretched salivary gland polytene chromosomes. The data from these in situ hybridizations in combination with the transcription map of the 38 kb of DNA indicate that: (i) there are six discrete RNA species encoded along the 38 kb of DNA and (ii) these six transcripts map to the faint band/interband region which includes the proximal edge of 280, the three faint bands, 28C2, 280 and 28C4-5(−), and the adjacent interband chromatin. Our data are consistent with the few published studies directly demonstrating that faint band/interband regions of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland polytene chromosomes code for a high density of transcripts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Urate oxidase ; Drosophila pseudoobscura ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Nucleotide sequence ; Evolutionary comparison ; Gene regulation ; Malpighian tubules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The urate oxidase (UO) transcription unit of Drosophila pseudoobscura was cloned, sequenced, and compared to the UO transcription unit from Drosophila melanogaster. In both species the UO coding region is divided into two exons of approximately equal size. The deduced D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster UO peptides have 346 and 352 amino acid residues, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster UO protein-coding regions are 82.2% identical whereas the deduced amino acid sequences are 87.6% identical with 42 amino acid changes, 33 of which occur in the first exon. Although the UO gene is expressed exclusively within the cells of the Malpighian tubules in both of these species, the temporal patterns of UO gene activity during development are markedly different. UO enzyme activity, UO protein, and UO mRNA are found in the third instar larva and adult of D. melanogaster but only in the adult stage of D. pseudoobscura. The intronic sequences and the extragenic 5′ and 3′ flanking regions of the D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster UO genes are highly divergent with the exception of eight small islands of conserved sequence along 772 by 5′ of the UO protein-coding region. These islands of conserved sequence are possible UO cis-acting regulatory elements as they reside along the 5′ flanking DNA of the D. melanogaster UO gene that is capable of conferring a wild-type D. melanogaster pattern of UO regulation on a UO-lacZ fusion gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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