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  • 1
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    Münster: Inst. für Ökonomische Bildung
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The paper theoretically analyses the effect of the introduction of the three-point-rule on the strategies in a soccer match. Therefore the expectation values for the goal difference at the end of the game under different strategies both for matches between equally strong teams and (more realistically) for matches between teams with varying quality levels are simulated. It can be shown that the rule change in tied games between equally strong teams leads to a more offensive manner of play, while in matches between teams with varying quality levels the weaker team plays in any case more offensive, while the stronger team only plays more offensive if the gap between the quality of the teams is not too big. If one team leads in matches with homogenous teams the leading team now changes later from an offensive manner of play to a defensive manner. In matches with heterogeneous teams with the better team in lead this team changes its manner of play earlier from offense to defence and if the weaker team leads it changes its strategy earlier.
    Keywords: C72 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Strategie ; Betriebswirtschaftliches Ziel ; Spieltheorie ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The effects of the three-point rule in first league German soccer are tested empirically and compared to games from the German cup-competition. The inclusion of cup games ensures that changes in league games can be attributed to the three-point rule. As a result of their relative devaluation, the number of draws should decrease. Furthermore, an increase in the number of close wins is expected. The strategy of a leading team becomes more defensive, resulting in fewer goal shootings by that team, as well as fewer shooting opportunities for the opponent. Empirical evidence supporting these effects is found.
    Keywords: C72 ; C93 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Nichtkooperatives Spiel ; Regulierung ; Bewertung ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Münster: Inst. für Ökonomische Bildung
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Die Auswechslung von Spielern stellt neben der Halbzeitpause die einzige Möglichkeit für einen Fußballtrainer dar, während des Spiels Einfluss auf Strategie und Taktik seines Teams zu nehmen. Da die Anzahl der möglichen Wechsel beschränkt ist, kommt diesen Auswechslungen eine große Bedeutung zu. Der Beitrag stellt daher Gründe für die Auswechslung von Spielern im Fußball dar und zeigt anhand von Daten der 1. Fußball-Bundesliga, dass unter anderem der aktuelle Spielstand Auswirkungen auf Zeitpunkt und Art der Auswechslung hat. Zusätzlich zeigen die Daten, dass häufiger Spieler ausgewechselt werden, die bereits eine gelbe Karte erhalten haben und damit gelb-rot gefährdet sind, als solche Spieler, die noch nicht verwarnt wurden.
    Description: Besides half time talk player substitutions are the only possibility for a coach to exert influence on strategy and tactic of his team. Since the number of possible player substitutions is limited these substitutions are of utmost importance. This article therefore displays reasons for player substitutions and shows by means of data from the first German soccer league that amongst others the current score has an effect on time and kind of the substitutions. In addition the data demonstrate that players which were booked are replaced more often than players that were not booked
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Personaleinsatzplanung ; Professioneller Sport ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Die Bundesregierung hat mit der Rentenreform 2001 die staatliche Förderung der freiwilligen zusätzlichen kapitalgedeckten Altersvorsorge eingeführt. Dabei werden über die Riester-Rente zertifizierte private Altersvorsorgeprodukte durch Zulagen und Steuerersparnisse gefördert. Dadurch sollen finanzielle Anreize für die Versicherten der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung und für Beamte gesetzt werden, die langfristige Niveauabsenkung der gesetzlichen Rente durch den Aufbau einer privaten Rente auszugleichen. Insbesondere sollen auch Geringverdiener, Frauen, Förderberechtigte in den neuen Ländern und Familien beim Aufbau einer zusätzlichen Altersvorsorge finanziell unterstützt werden. Eine Analyse der Inanspruchnahme der Riester-Rente auf Basis von Daten aus dem Sozio-oekonomischen Panel im Zeitraum von 2004 bis 2007 zeigt, dass diese vor allem in Ostdeutschland stark zugenommen hat und die Riester- Förderung zunehmend von Frauen in Anspruch genommen wird. Am häufigsten verfügen 24- bis 44-Jährige über diese Form der Alterssicherung. Das Ziel insbesondere Geringverdiener beim Aufbau einer zusätzlichen Altersvorsorge finanziell zu unterstützen, scheint nach den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Studie bisher allerdings nur sehr eingeschränkt erreicht worden zu sein.
    Keywords: D12 ; H24 ; H30 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; Private pension provision ; Riester scheme ; tax incentives ; Private Altersvorsorge ; Steuervergünstigung ; Sparförderung ; Anreiz ; Niedrigeinkommen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: We analyze the impact of changing employment patterns and pension reforms on the future level of public pensions across birth cohorts in Germany. The analysis is based on a rich dataset that combines household survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and process-produced microdata from the German pension insurance. A microsimulation model is developed which accounts for cohort effects in individual employment and unemployment and earnings over the lifecycle as well as the differential impact of recent pension reforms. Cohort effects for individuals born between 1937 and 1971 vary greatly by region, gender and education and strongly affect lifecycle wage profiles. The largest effects can be observed for younger cohorts in East Germany and for the low educated. Using simulated life cycle employment and income profiles, we project gross future pensions across cohorts taking into account changing demographics and recent pension reforms. Simulations show that pension levels for East German men and women will fall dramatically among younger birth cohorts, not only because of policy reforms but due to higher cumulated unemployment. For West German men, the small reduction of average pension levels among younger birth cohorts is mainly driven by the impact of pension reforms, while future pension levels of West German women are increasing or stable due to rising labor market participation of younger birth cohorts.
    Keywords: H55 ; J26 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; Public pensions ; cohort effects ; microsimulation ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Rentenreform ; Kohortenanalyse ; Mikrosimulation ; Geschlecht ; Deutschland ; Ostdeutschland ; Westdeutsche Bundesländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: This paper extends the idea of using ex-ante risk measures in a model of precautionary savings by explicitly simulating future net-income risks. The uncertainty measure takes into account the interdependency of labour market status and health. The model is estimated for prime age males using the German Socio-Economic Panel Study for years 2001-2007. The empirical analysis is conducted using a measure for saving stocks and saving flows. The latter model allows to control for individual specific effects. I find evidence for precautionary savings in response to the uncertainty measures. The results are robust and stable across specifications. There is evidence for a share of precautionary wealth of about 14 to 17 percent.
    Keywords: D91 ; E21 ; ddc:330 ; Precautionary savings ; health ; employment ; risks ; Gesundheit ; Männer ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Beschäftigungssicherung ; Vorsichtssparen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Prognose ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Mikrosimulation ; Kohortenanalyse ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: We analyze the impact of changing employment patterns and pension reforms on the future level of public pensions across birth cohorts in Germany. The analysis is based on a rich dataset that combines household survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and process-produced microdata from the German pension insurance. A microsimulation model is developed which accounts for cohort effects in individual employment and unemployment and earnings over the lifecycle as well as the differential impact of recent pension reforms. Cohort effects for individuals born between 1937 and 1971 vary greatly by region, gender and education and strongly affect lifecycle wage profiles. The largest effects can be observed for younger cohorts in East Germany and for the low educated. Using simulated life cycle employment and income profiles, we project gross future pensions across cohorts taking into account changing demographics and recent pension reforms. Simulations show that pension levels for East German men and women will fall dramatically among younger birth cohorts, not only because of policy reforms but due to higher cumulated unemployment. For West German men, the small reduction of average pension levels among younger birth cohorts is mainly driven by the impact of pension reforms, while future pension levels of West German women are increasing or stable due to rising labor market participation of younger birth cohorts.
    Keywords: H55 ; J26 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; Public pensions ; cohort effects ; microsimulation ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Rentenreform ; Kohortenanalyse ; Mikrosimulation ; Geschlecht ; Deutschland ; Neue Bundesländer ; Alte Bundesländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: The employment behavior of mothers is strongly influenced by labor market regulations and certain institutional arrangements, which both vary greatly across European countries. Using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) 1994-2001 for Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, which represent four distinct ?institutional regimes?, we estimate the short-run and long-term effects of childbirth on married women?s employment and working hours. Estimation results show that these effects vary across the four countries in accordance with prevailing institutional regulations.
    Keywords: D12 ; J13 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; employment and working hours ; labor supply ; childbirth ; European Community Household Panel ; panel data models ; Frauenerwerbstätigkeit ; Mütter ; Arbeitsangebot ; Familienpolitik ; Mutterschutz ; Vergleich ; Dänemark ; Deutschland ; Italien ; Großbritannien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-09-16
    Description: Wie entwickelt sich das Risiko für Altersarmut in der nahen bis mittleren Frist? Welche Gruppen werden besonders von Altersarmut betroffen sein? Welche Auswirkungen haben derzeit diskutierte Rentenreformen auf die Entwicklung der Altersarmut? Es ist das Ziel dieser Simulationsstudie, Antworten auf diese zentralen sozialpolitischen Fragen zu geben. Um das Armutsrisiko zu messen, wird in dieser Analyse das gesamte Einkommen nach Steuern im Haushaltskontext auf Basis von repräsentativen Haushaltsdaten simuliert und geschätzt, wie sich das Armutsrisiko bis zum Jahr 2036 entwickeln wird. In den Simulationen werden die Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung (GRV)/Beamtenversorgung, Betriebliche Altersvorsorge (BAV), Lohneinkommen und private Absicherung (z. B. Riester- und Rürup-Rente, Lebensversicherung und weitere Formen von Geldvermögen) sowie Steuern, Sozialabgaben und Transfers modelliert. [...]
    Description: How will the risk of old-age poverty develop in the near to mid-term? Which groups will be particularly affected by old-age poverty? What are the effects of pension reforms on the development of old-age poverty? It is the goal of this simulation study to provide answers to these central social policy questions. In order to measure the poverty risk, this analysis simulates the total household income after tax on the basis of representative survey data and estimates how the risk of poverty will develop up to the year 2036. The simulations model the statutory pension insurance, pensions for civil servants, occupational pensions, labor income and private savings (for example subsidized private insurance plans (Riester- and Rürup-Rente), life insurance and other financial assets) as well as taxes, social security contributions and transfers. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Altersarmut ; Sozialpolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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