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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1997-08-01
    Description: Images of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) taken during its close approach to Earth show differences in the distribution of gas and dust in the inner coma and reveal two arc-shaped molecular resonant emission features. The morphology of these features, as well as the apparent decoupling gas from dust in the inner coma, suggest that an extended region of icy grains surrounds the nucleus of Hyakutake and contributes substantially to the production of volatiles. Model simulations suggest the same conclusion and indicate that the brighter arc is explainable by the presence of a trailing condensation of ice-bearing granules with a rate of volatile production approximately 23 percent of that of the nucleus.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harris, W M -- Combi, M R -- Honeycutt, R K -- Mueller, B E -- Scherb, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 1;277(5326):676-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Space Astronomy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA. wharris@sal.wisc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9235888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cosmic Dust ; *Gases ; Ice ; *Meteoroids ; Water
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-09-10
    Description: On 4 July 2005, many observatories around the world and in space observed the collision of Deep Impact with comet 9P/Tempel 1 or its aftermath. This was an unprecedented coordinated observational campaign. These data show that (i) there was new material after impact that was compositionally different from that seen before impact; (ii) the ratio of dust mass to gas mass in the ejecta was much larger than before impact; (iii) the new activity did not last more than a few days, and by 9 July the comet's behavior was indistinguishable from its pre-impact behavior; and (iv) there were interesting transient phenomena that may be correlated with cratering physics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meech, K J -- Ageorges, N -- A'Hearn, M F -- Arpigny, C -- Ates, A -- Aycock, J -- Bagnulo, S -- Bailey, J -- Barber, R -- Barrera, L -- Barrena, R -- Bauer, J M -- Belton, M J S -- Bensch, F -- Bhattacharya, B -- Biver, N -- Blake, G -- Bockelee-Morvan, D -- Boehnhardt, H -- Bonev, B P -- Bonev, T -- Buie, M W -- Burton, M G -- Butner, H M -- Cabanac, R -- Campbell, R -- Campins, H -- Capria, M T -- Carroll, T -- Chaffee, F -- Charnley, S B -- Cleis, R -- Coates, A -- Cochran, A -- Colom, P -- Conrad, A -- Coulson, I M -- Crovisier, J -- deBuizer, J -- Dekany, R -- de Leon, J -- Dello Russo, N -- Delsanti, A -- DiSanti, M -- Drummond, J -- Dundon, L -- Etzel, P B -- Farnham, T L -- Feldman, P -- Fernandez, Y R -- Filipovic, M D -- Fisher, S -- Fitzsimmons, A -- Fong, D -- Fugate, R -- Fujiwara, H -- Fujiyoshi, T -- Furusho, R -- Fuse, T -- Gibb, E -- Groussin, O -- Gulkis, S -- Gurwell, M -- Hadamcik, E -- Hainaut, O -- Harker, D -- Harrington, D -- Harwit, M -- Hasegawa, S -- Hergenrother, C W -- Hirst, P -- Hodapp, K -- Honda, M -- Howell, E S -- Hutsemekers, D -- Iono, D -- Ip, W-H -- Jackson, W -- Jehin, E -- Jiang, Z J -- Jones, G H -- Jones, P A -- Kadono, T -- Kamath, U W -- Kaufl, H U -- Kasuga, T -- Kawakita, H -- Kelley, M S -- Kerber, F -- Kidger, M -- Kinoshita, D -- Knight, M -- Lara, L -- Larson, S M -- Lederer, S -- Lee, C-F -- Levasseur-Regourd, A C -- Li, J Y -- Li, Q-S -- Licandro, J -- Lin, Z-Y -- Lisse, C M -- LoCurto, G -- Lovell, A J -- Lowry, S C -- Lyke, J -- Lynch, D -- Ma, J -- Magee-Sauer, K -- Maheswar, G -- Manfroid, J -- Marco, O -- Martin, P -- Melnick, G -- Miller, S -- Miyata, T -- Moriarty-Schieven, G H -- Moskovitz, N -- Mueller, B E A -- Mumma, M J -- Muneer, S -- Neufeld, D A -- Ootsubo, T -- Osip, D -- Pandea, S K -- Pantin, E -- Paterno-Mahler, R -- Patten, B -- Penprase, B E -- Peck, A -- Petitas, G -- Pinilla-Alonso, N -- Pittichova, J -- Pompei, E -- Prabhu, T P -- Qi, C -- Rao, R -- Rauer, H -- Reitsema, H -- Rodgers, S D -- Rodriguez, P -- Ruane, R -- Ruch, G -- Rujopakarn, W -- Sahu, D K -- Sako, S -- Sakon, I -- Samarasinha, N -- Sarkissian, J M -- Saviane, I -- Schirmer, M -- Schultz, P -- Schulz, R -- Seitzer, P -- Sekiguchi, T -- Selman, F -- Serra-Ricart, M -- Sharp, R -- Snell, R L -- Snodgrass, C -- Stallard, T -- Stecklein, G -- Sterken, C -- Stuwe, J A -- Sugita, S -- Sumner, M -- Suntzeff, N -- Swaters, R -- Takakuwa, S -- Takato, N -- Thomas-Osip, J -- Thompson, E -- Tokunaga, A T -- Tozzi, G P -- Tran, H -- Troy, M -- Trujillo, C -- Van Cleve, J -- Vasundhara, R -- Vazquez, R -- Vilas, F -- Villanueva, G -- von Braun, K -- Vora, P -- Wainscoat, R J -- Walsh, K -- Watanabe, J -- Weaver, H A -- Weaver, W -- Weiler, M -- Weissman, P R -- Welsh, W F -- Wilner, D -- Wolk, S -- Womack, M -- Wooden, D -- Woodney, L M -- Woodward, C -- Wu, Z-Y -- Wu, J-H -- Yamashita, T -- Yang, B -- Yang, Y-B -- Yokogawa, S -- Zook, A C -- Zauderer, A -- Zhao, X -- Zhou, X -- Zucconi, J-M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Oct 14;310(5746):265-9. Epub 2005 Sep 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16150977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cosmic Dust ; Jupiter ; *Meteoroids ; Organic Chemicals ; Photometry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis is performed on a model compound (bisurethane of diphenylmethane-4-monoisocyanate and butanediol-1,4) for the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) hard segment formed from diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate and butanediol-1,4. The resulting structure is compared to structure models of corresponding TPU hard segments, especially to the structure proposed by Blackwell and Ross. Our results confirm this structure model showing a planar zigzag of the (CH2)4 group and planar hydrogen bonding between the urethane groups of adjacent molecules. X-ray diffraction analyses of polymeric TPU hard segments and of TPU elastomers with noncrystallizing soft segments lead to a revision of the dimensions of the proposed lattice cell, resulting in a more plausible value of 1.3226g/cm3 for the crystal density.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Polymerica 33 (1982), S. 408-412 
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: HD-PE layers formed on quartz monocrystal surfaces from dilute solutions were investigated by electron diffraction to test the influence of the substrate on the polymer structure. The PE chains proved to be arranged parallel to the quartz surface and epitaxial intergrowth is possible. Both orthorhombic and monoclinic modifications of PE were observed. Epitaxy relations are derived and discussed, and the influence of annealing on the layer structure was investigated.
    Notes: Aus verdünnten Lösungen auf Quarzeinkristallen abgeschiedene Filme von HD-PE wurden mit Hilfe der Elektronenbeugung untersucht, um zu überprüfen, welchen Einfluß die Unterlage auf die Polymerstruktur besitzt. Es wurde festgestellt, daß sich die Polymerketten parallel zur Quarzoberfläche ausrichten und epitaktische Verwachsungen auftreten können, wobei neben der orthorhombischen auch die monokline Modifikation in Erscheinung trat. Epitaxiebeziehungen werden abgeleitet und strukturell diskutiert. Außerdem wird der Einfluß einer Temperbehandlung auf die Schichtstruktur untersucht.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations on the Creep Behaviour of a X 20 CrMoV 12 1 Bend, Fabricated by an Inductive Pipe Bending MachineA bend with a bend radius of 1700 mm -350 mm outer diameter and 25 mm wall thickness - of a X 20 CrMo V 12 1 steel, fabricated by an inductive pipe bending machine at 1050-900 °C deformation temperature was investigated. Heat treatment after fabrication: air cooling from 1050 °C, following a 2 hour annealing at 770 °C with air cooling. In addition to the usual mechanical and technological tests at ambient temperature and 530 °C, creep tests were conducted at 530 °C with unnotched and notched specimens. For comparison a straight pipe with the same dimensions was proofed, too.
    Notes: Ein Rohrbogen mit einem Biegeradius von 1700 mm - bei einem Rohraußendurchmesser von 350 mm und einer Wanddicke von etwa 25 mm - wurde aus dem warmfesten Röhrenstahl X 20 CrMo V 12 1, W.-Nr. 1.4922, nach dem Induktivbiegeverfahren bei einer Verformungstemperatur von 1050 bis 900 °C hergestellt. Die nachfolgende Wärmebehandlung erfolgte bei 1050 °C/Luft + 770 °C/2 h/Luft.Neben den üblichen mechanischen und mechanisch-technologischen Untersuchungen bei Raumtemperatur und bei 530 °C wurden auch Zeitstandversuche mit glatten und gekerbten Proben bei 530 °C durchgeführt. Zum Vergleich wurde auch ein gerades Rohr mit den gleichen Abmessungen zur Prüfung herangezogen.Alle ermittelten Werte entsprechen den Gewährleistungswerten. Rohrbogen und Rohr weisen auch nach langer Laufzeit noch hohe Werte der Duktilität auf.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Ultrafeine ZrO2 - Pulver durch Laserverdampfung: Herstellung und EigenschaftenUltrafeine oxidische Pulver werden durch Co2-Laserverdampfung aus grobem ZrO2-Pulver oder kompakten ZrO2-Stangen hergestellt.Die 10.6 μm-Strahlung im Leistungsbereich von 1 bis 4 kW wird durch einen quergeströmten CO2-Laser erzeugt, der in cw-und Pw-Betrieb arbeitet.Die Verdampfungsrate ist abhängig von der relativen Lage der Fokalebene zur Oberfläche des ZrO2-Pulvers, der Laserintensität und der eingekoppelten Energie.Bei einer Laserintensität von 4.2 · 105 Wcm-2 erreicht man eine optimale Verdampfungsrate von 130 g · h-1 (cw-Betrieb des Lasers).Das hergestellte Pulver besteht aus sphärischen Partikeln; deren Durchmesser variiert im Bereich von 5 bis 200 nm und kann durch die Verfahrensparameter beeinflußt werden. Die spezifische Oberfläche ist einstellbar von 10 bis 30 m2 · g-1.Das Pulver aus unstabilisiertem Zirkonium besitzt einen sehr hohen Anteil tetragonaler Phase. Im Fall von chemisch stabilisiertem Zirkonium kann sich die Zusammensetzung während des Verdampfungsprozesses und der Rekondensation ändern.
    Notes: Ultrafine oxide powders were produced by CO2 laser evaporation of coarse ZrO2 powder or compact stabilized ZrO2 materialThe 10.6μm radiation in the power range 1-4kW was generated by a transversal flow Co2 laser which can oscillate in cw and pw operationThe vaporization rate depends on the relative position of the focal plane to the surface of the ZrO2 powder, the laser intensity and the supplied energy input.At a laser intensity of 4.2 · 105 Wcm-2 the optimum vaporization rate is 130 g · h-1 (cw-operation of the laser).The produced powders consist of spherical particles; their diameters vary in the range from 5 to 200 nm can be controlled by the process conditions. The surface area (BET) is adjustable from 10 to 30 m2 · g-1.The powders of unstabilized zirconia show an unusual high content of the tetragonal phase. In case of chemically stabilized zirconia the composition can change during the process of evaporation and recondensation.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: The crazing of two rubber-toughened plastics (ABS, HIPS) is investigated by measuring the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) during a tensile deformation. In both systems the onset of crazing is observed near the yield-maximum if the samples are continuously strained. The craze-rate of HIPS is much higher than that of ABS and after unloading HIPS shows a considerable recovery in contrast to ABS. The application of SAXS to the characterization of craze-phenomena is compared with that of other methods.
    Notes: An zwei schlagfesten Mehrphasensystemen (ABS, HIPS) wird das Crazing durch Messung der Röntgenkleinwinkelstreuung bei einer mechanischen Verformung verfolgt. In beiden Systemen setzt bei kontinuierlicher Zugbeanspruchung unmittelbar in der Nähe des Yield-Maximums eine starke Craze-Bildung ein. Beim schlagfesten Polystyrol (HIPS) findet man eine in Vergleich zum ABS wesentlich höhere Craze-Rate und nach Entlastung eine ausgeprägtere Reversibilität des Crazings. Die Aussagemöglichkeiten der Röntgenkleinwinkelstreuung zur Craze-Charakterisierung werden mit denen anderer Methoden verglichen.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Blockcopolyethers of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) are molecular homogeneous in the dry state. When water is added most of it is physically bonded to the EO blocks. This leads to a considerable increase of the viscosity. At higher water concentrations the system forms a thermoreversible gel. It could be demonstrated by quantitative Small Angle X-Ray Scattering that a progressive microphase separation takes place. In this process a stochimoetric 1 : 1-complex of ethylene oxide and water plays an important role. The gelation ist correlated with the appearance of a lamellar order, i.e. an amphiphilic liquid crystalline phase. This long range supermolecular structure has to be regarded as the reason for the elastic behavior of the systems at high water concentrations.
    Notes: Blockcopolyether aus Ethylenoxid (EO) und Propylenoxid (PO) bilden im wasserfreien Zustand einphasige Systeme. In Gegenwart von Wasser findet eine weitgehend selektive Solvatisierung der EO-Blöcke statt. Diese führt zu einem starken Viskositätsanstieg und bei höheren Wassergehalten zur Bildung eines thermoreversiblen Gels. Durch quantitative Röntgenkleinwinkelmessungen konnte gezeigt werden, daß sich mit steigendem Wassergehalt in zunehmendem Maße eine Mikrophasenbildung vollzieht, wobei dem 1 : 1-Komplex aus Ethylen-oxid und Wasser eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Die Gelbildung ist verknüpft mit dem Auftreten einer lamellaren Struktur, die eine amphiphile LC-Phase darstellt. Diese weitreichende übermolekulare Ordnungsstruktur ist als Ursache für die elastischen Eigen-schaften solcher Systeme anzusehen.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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