An increasing amount of studies integrate mRNA sequencing data into MS-based proteomics to complement the translation product search space. However, several factors, including extensive regulation of mRNA translation and the need for three- or six-frame-translation, impede the use of mRNA-seq data for the construction of a protein sequence search database. With that in mind, we developed the PROTEOFORMER tool that automatically processes data of the recently developed ribosome profiling method (sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments), resulting in genome-wide visualization of ribosome occupancy. Our tool also includes a translation initiation site calling algorithm allowing the delineation of the open reading frames (ORFs) of all translation products. A complete protein synthesis-based sequence database can thus be compiled for mass spectrometry-based identification. This approach increases the overall protein identification rates with 3% and 11% (improved and new identifications) for human and mouse, respectively, and enables proteome-wide detection of 5'-extended proteoforms, upstream ORF translation and near-cognate translation start sites. The PROTEOFORMER tool is available as a stand-alone pipeline and has been implemented in the galaxy framework for ease of use.
Computational Methods, Ribosomes and Protein Translation, Massively Parallel (Deep) Sequencing, Genomics, Transcriptome Mapping - Monitoring Gene Expression