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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Electrodialytic sample treatment ; On-line coupling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary An electrodialytic sample treatment method coupled on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography (EDIST-HPLC) is discussed in this paper. The performance of EDIST as a function of the donor-phase (sample solution) flow rate, the voltage applied over the electrodialysis block, and the time of dialysis has been studied using the basic drug ephedrine as a model compound. Enrichment of the analyte by a factor of 10–20 was possible. The determination of human plasma spiked with ephedrine is briefly discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Electrodialytic sample treatment ; Computer models ; Analyte enrichment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Basic considerations for analyte enrichment and recovery obtainable by electrodialysis as a sample treatment method are given. Equations are derived which describe the dependence of the concentration profiles of ionic compounds on the electric field strength in a set-up with stagnant donor and acceptor solutions. It is shown that analyte recovery increases when less ion-selective membranes are used in the electrodialysis cell. Computer models are used to estimate the analyte enrichment for a flowing donor (sample) and a stagnant acceptor phase. About 10-fold enrichment can be obtained in an electrodialytic sample treatment system within 20 min under maximum current conditions. A compromise has to be found between analyte recovery and the donor (sample) flow rate.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Zone-electrophoretic sample treatment ; Basic and acidic compounds ; Biological samples
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A modified valve arrangement for zone-electrophoretic sample treatment (ZEST)-which is coupled on-line with column liquid chromatography — is used to pretreat biological (plasma) samples. Carry-over of plasma proteins depends on the pH of the electrophoresis buffer. The determination of propranolol, metoprolol, cromolyn and salicylic acid demonstrates that both basic and acidic analytes can be isolated from the plasma matrix with high selectivity. Analogous piperazines, with different protein binding properties, were used to study the influence of protein binding on the recovery. It is shown that high protein can cause a decreased recovery.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Sample treatment ; Zone electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The design of a new valve arrangement for zone-electrophoretic sample treatment (ZEST) coupled online with high performance liquid chromatography is described. Characteristics of this valve, such as the internal heat development as a function of the current, have been investigated. By using quinidine and desipramine as model compounds it is shown that charged compounds can be isolated from biological samples, in about 15 min, with high selectivity. The carry-over of proteins to the analytical column has been compared with the carry-over using a pre-column sample clean-up method. The detection limits of quinidine and hydroquinidine (50 ng/ml), using zone-electrophoretic sample treatment coupled with column liquid chromatography, are in the same range as with direct injections using pre-columns.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Reversed-phase system ; On-line post-column extraction ; Electron-capture detection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A post-column extraction module has been used for the on-line coupling of conventional-size (4.6mm i.d.) reversed-phase liquid chromatography (PPLC) and electron-capture detection (ECD). Hexane and toluene were used as extraction solvents, while methanol turned out to be preferable to dioxane and acetonitrile as modifier in the aqueous eluent. In this system the ECD behaves as a concentration-sensitive detector. The band broadening in the evaporation interface, which connects the extraction module with the ECD, dominates the total post-column band broadening; it can be reduced to 3–4 sec by directing at least 0.25–0.30 ml/min (i.e. 25–30%) of the extraction solvent to the ECD. Optimal signal-to-noise ratios were observed if 30–60% of the extraction solvent is directed to the ECD. The noise levels are 5–10 times higher than in systems using a direct coupling of normal-phase LC or narrow-bore reversed-phase liquid chromatography to the ECD. Separations of phenylurea herbicides and chlorophenols demonstrate the applicability of the RPLC-extraction module-ECD system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Expert systems ; Optimization of operating parameters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Given the mobile and the stationary phase and values for the physical parameters such as temperature and pH, a separation can be optimized by varying the so-calledchromatographic parameters. These include the column dimensions, particle size, operating conditions (e.g. flow rate, attenuation) and instrumentation (e.g. detector cell, time constant). Optimization of the chromatographic parameters implies finding the best possible set of values, which we define as yielding (i) sufficient separation and (ii) sufficient sensitivity in (iii) the shortest possible time. Finding the best possible conditions (the global optimum) is very difficult for chromatographers in practice. An expert system is described that allows chromatographic optimization to be performed for isocratic separations. An initial chromatogram is required to consult the system. In return, the system provides a complete set of chromatographic parameters, which represents the global optimum within the limits set by the required resolution and signal-to-noise ratio specified by the user. The tolerated flow and pressure ranges, the volume of the available detector cells and the time constant of the detection system are constraints during the optimization. A separate module of the system concerns the sample preparation for pharmaceutical formulations in solid dosages and aqueous solutions. Prototype expert systems have been successfully implemented in the expert-system shell Knowledge Craft on a MicroVAX workstation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Trace enrichment ; Membrane extraction disks ; Triazine herbicides ; 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Membrane extraction disks have been recently introduced for the solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous samples. The material consists of alkyl-modified silica particles enmeshed in an inert PTEE matrix. Aqueous samples containing polar pesticides and herbicides, are preconcentrated on-line from acidic solutions on membrane extraction disks containing immobilized octadecyl-modified silica and analyzed with an isocratic liquid chromatographic system using PLRP-S as the stationary phase and aqueous acetonitrile mixtures (pH 3) as the eluent. Data on the lifetime and the dimensions of the preconcentration disks, and the efficiency and the repeatability of the procedure are reported. For 10 ml samples, the detection limits of the analytes atrazine, simazine and 2,3,4-trichlorophenol in tap water are 0.1–1 ppb.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; Water analysis ; Triazine herbicides ; Chemical ionization mass spectrometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Mass spectra of 12 triazines were obtained by electron impact (EI), positive-ion chemical ionization (PCI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) using methane and isobutane as reagent gases. EI mass spectrometry is more sensitive than PCI and NCI, although the chemical ionization modes increase selectivity markedly. A pre-column packed with polymer stationary phase was employed to preconcentrate surface and drinking water samples. After desorption of the analytes with ethyl acetate, an aliquot was injected directly into the GC-MS system. Atrazine and simizine were found in these samples at 10–80 ppt levels. The limits of detection for both herbicides were below 10 ppt in drinking water.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Polar pollutants in water ; On-line trace enrichment ; Humic substances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A practical liquid chromatographic early-warning system for polar pollutants in water ought to have detection limits at a level below a microgram per litre. Using ultraviolet absorbance detection this normally necessitates trace enrichment of the samples. In this study ten different sorbents have been tested with respect to their enrichment capacity. The hydrophobic polymeric PLRP-S material, in combination with a C-18 modified analytical column, proved to be the best choice. The influence of humic substances, present in surface water, was also studied. Lowering of the sample pH, resulted in a significant increase in the interferences due to the humic substances.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Particle beam interface-mass spectrometry ; Water analysis and identification of unknown ; pollutants ; Phenylurea herbicides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Trace enrichment on a precolumn packed with copolymer material, coupled on-line with reversed-phase, column liquid chromatography-particle beammass spectrometry (RPLC-PB-MS) has been used for both target and non-target analysis of water samples. RPLC is carried out on a C-18-bonded silica column using a linear acetonitrile-0.1 M ammonium acetate gradient. Using optimised PB-MS conditions and 100–250 ml water samples, the detection limits for several phenylureas are in the 0.03–0.05 μg l−1 range using the full-scan mode; repeatability is good and the LC-PB-MS system is robust. Several surface and drinking water samples have been analysed and low levels of various environmental contaminants have been identified using electron impact mass spectra. Applying chemical ionisation with methane as reagent gas in both the positive and negative mode in conjunction with PB-MS provides relevant confirmatory information.
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