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  • 1
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: This paper uses two sources of information and different methodologies to analyze the causal effect of product and process innovation on productivity in the Chilean manufacturing industry during the past decade. In general, the evidence suggests there is not a contemporaneous effect of product innovation on productivity, but there is a positive effect of process innovation. This notsignificant effect of product innovation contrasts with evidence of studies for other countries. However, the results show the presence of lagged effects product innovation on productivity two years after innovation. Compared with the case of developed countries, this evidence might be consistent with a very slow process of “learning by doing” on the part of Chilean firms with regard to mastering new technologies. These slow and frequently uncertain gains in productivity could help to explain the low levels of investment in research and development (R&D) activities by Chilean firms.
    Keywords: D22 ; D24 ; D92 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity ; Innovation ; Investment ; Research and development ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: This Working Paper provides an in-depth analysis of public-private collaboration (PPC) in Chilean productive development policies (PDPs) through five case studies under two specific polices: the Technology Consortia Program and the National Cluster Policy. The analysis is based on a set of more than 30 semi-structured, in-depth interviews, and is complemented by official written information on the workings of each of the instruments and particular cases. The most significant conclusion that emerges is the importance of having institutions that allow the government to learn from the implementation of new policies in order to improve them over time.
    Keywords: O43 ; D71 ; D78 ; L52 ; ddc:330 ; Public-private collaboration ; Productive development ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: The adjustment of the information obtained from household surveys to make the figures compatible with National Accounts is a non-standard and potentially questionable practice given that it alters the structure of income distribution. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of inequality and poverty indicators to the adjustments made by ECLAC so as to enable a consistency between what is reported by the CASEN survey and the National Accounts figures in Chile. The results reveal that this leads to important changes in the top-end of the distribution and to an overestimation in the main inequality indicators in Chile. Chile looks more unequal in international relative terms due to this adjustment.
    Keywords: C81 ; D3 ; I32 ; N36 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; poverty ; income adjustment ; Chile ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung ; Privater Haushalt ; Datenerhebung ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Although the organic food sector has been the subject of research for around 20 years, little is known about consumer behaviour when comparing developed and emerging organic food markets using causal research models. Thus, by developing a behavioural model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this research article is to investigate the main determinants of organic food consumption in a mature (Germany) and an emerging (Chile) organic market. Subjects aged 18 or above were consulted about their attitudes towards, intention to consume, and stated consumption behaviour of organic food via an online survey in both countries. Items related to social norms and perceived behaviour control (PBC) were also included in the assessments. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify key constructs in the proposed research model. Afterwards, a partial least squares (PLS) approach was used to assess causal relationships, and significant differences between countries were also tested. The proposed behavioural model was suitable for predicting individuals’ behaviour in Chile and Germany. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the model was able to explain more variance in Germany than in Chile. In line with the TPB, intention to buy organic food is a good predictor of behaviour. In addition, both altruistic and egoistic arguments are significant drivers of attitude towards and intention to buy organic food in Germany. In Chile, only altruistic motives have a significant impact on consumer attitude and intentions. The results of this study have implications for marketers and policy-makers in both countries. The use of altruistic arguments in organic food marketing is a key aspect that should be considered in communication campaigns to increase organic food demand in both countries. However, along with the evolution of the organic market in Chile, egoistic aspects related to organic consumption might also gain importance in determining consumer behaviour, as is already the case in Germany. In both countries, information should be comprehensive and communicated by a credible source to enable growing consumer trust in the organic food sector as a sustainable alternative to conventional food supply. The barriers that deter organic food consumption have to be addressed by marketers and policy-makers with great attention; these include not only information but also the lack of availability, especially in Chile, and scepticism about organic food in Germany.
    Keywords: Q13 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Organic food ; Consumer behaviour ; Partial least squares ; Germany ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-07-03
    Description: Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 (refs 1-11). Considering that ectopic expression of c-Myc causes tumorigenicity in offspring and that retroviruses themselves can cause insertional mutagenesis, the generation of iPS cells with a minimal number of factors may hasten the clinical application of this approach. Here we show that adult mouse neural stem cells express higher endogenous levels of Sox2 and c-Myc than embryonic stem cells, and that exogenous Oct4 together with either Klf4 or c-Myc is sufficient to generate iPS cells from neural stem cells. These two-factor iPS cells are similar to embryonic stem cells at the molecular level, contribute to development of the germ line, and form chimaeras. We propose that, in inducing pluripotency, the number of reprogramming factors can be reduced when using somatic cells that endogenously express appropriate levels of complementing factors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jeong Beom -- Zaehres, Holm -- Wu, Guangming -- Gentile, Luca -- Ko, Kinarm -- Sebastiano, Vittorio -- Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J -- Ruau, David -- Han, Dong Wook -- Zenke, Martin -- Scholer, Hans R -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):646-50. doi: 10.1038/nature07061. Epub 2008 Jun 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Rontgenstrasse 20, 48149 Munster, NRW, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; Chimera ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, myc/genetics ; HMGB Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neurons/*cytology ; Octamer Transcription Factor-3/genetics/metabolism ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Proteins/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated ; SOXB1 Transcription Factors ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Transduction, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Mechanisms controlling the proliferative activity of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) have a pivotal role to ensure life-long neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. How metabolic programs are coupled with NSPC activity remains unknown. Here we show that fatty acid synthase (Fasn), the key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is highly active in adult NSPCs and that conditional deletion of Fasn in mouse NSPCs impairs adult neurogenesis. The rate of de novo lipid synthesis and subsequent proliferation of NSPCs is regulated by Spot14, a gene previously implicated in lipid metabolism, that we found to be selectively expressed in low proliferating adult NSPCs. Spot14 reduces the availability of malonyl-CoA, which is an essential substrate for Fasn to fuel lipogenesis. Thus, we identify here a functional coupling between the regulation of lipid metabolism and adult NSPC proliferation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knobloch, Marlen -- Braun, Simon M G -- Zurkirchen, Luis -- von Schoultz, Carolin -- Zamboni, Nicola -- Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J -- Kovacs, Werner J -- Karalay, Ozlem -- Suter, Ueli -- Machado, Raquel A C -- Roccio, Marta -- Lutolf, Matthias P -- Semenkovich, Clay F -- Jessberger, Sebastian -- P30 DK020579/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK076729/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK088083/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 10;493(7431):226-30. doi: 10.1038/nature11689. Epub 2012 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201681" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Dentate Gyrus/metabolism ; Fatty Acid Synthases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Hippocampus/cytology/metabolism ; *Lipogenesis ; Malonyl Coenzyme A/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Neurogenesis ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-02-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Salazar-Bravo, Jorge -- Phillips, Carleton J -- Bradley, Robert D -- Baker, Robert J -- Yates, Terry L -- Ruedas, Luis A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Feb 24;311(5764):1099-100; author reply 1099-100.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16497914" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chiroptera/*classification/*virology ; *Coronavirus ; *Disease Reservoirs ; *SARS Virus ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology/transmission/virology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-11-03
    Description: The evolution of insect resistance threatens the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that are widely used in sprays and transgenic crops. Resistance to Bt toxins in some insects is linked with mutations that disrupt a toxin-binding cadherin protein. We show that susceptibility to the Bt toxin Cry1Ab was reduced by cadherin gene silencing with RNA interference in Manduca sexta, confirming cadherin's role in Bt toxicity. Native Cry1A toxins required cadherin to form oligomers, but modified Cry1A toxins lacking one alpha-helix did not. The modified toxins killed cadherin-silenced M. sexta and Bt-resistant Pectinophora gossypiella that had cadherin deletion mutations. Our findings suggest that cadherin promotes Bt toxicity by facilitating toxin oligomerization and demonstrate that the modified Bt toxins may be useful against pests resistant to standard Bt toxins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soberon, Mario -- Pardo-Lopez, Liliana -- Lopez, Idalia -- Gomez, Isabel -- Tabashnik, Bruce E -- Bravo, Alejandra -- 1R01 AI066014/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Dec 7;318(5856):1640-2. Epub 2007 Nov 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico. mario@ibt.unam.mx〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17975031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Bacterial Toxins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Cadherins/genetics/metabolism ; Endotoxins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Genetic Engineering ; Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; *Insecticide Resistance ; Larva ; *Manduca/genetics/metabolism ; *Moths/genetics/metabolism ; Mutation ; *Pest Control, Biological ; RNA Interference
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holt, Ben G -- Lessard, Jean-Philippe -- Borregaard, Michael K -- Fritz, Susanne A -- Araujo, Miguel B -- Dimitrov, Dimitar -- Fabre, Pierre-Henri -- Graham, Catherine H -- Graves, Gary R -- Jonsson, Knud A -- Nogues-Bravo, David -- Wang, Zhiheng -- Whittaker, Robert J -- Fjeldsa, Jon -- Rahbek, Carsten -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 4;339(6115):74-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1228282. Epub 2012 Dec 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Macroecology, Evolution, and Climate, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258408" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amphibians/classification ; Animals ; Birds/classification ; *Climate ; Mammals/classification ; *Phylogeny ; Phylogeography
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Throughout life, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neurons in the mammalian brain. Using photobleaching experiments, we found that during cell division in vitro and within the developing mouse forebrain, NSCs generate a lateral diffusion barrier in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby promoting asymmetric segregation of cellular components. The diffusion barrier weakens with age and in response to impairment of lamin-associated nuclear envelope constituents. Weakening of the diffusion barrier disrupts asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins, a product of aging. Damaged proteins are asymmetrically inherited by the nonstem daughter cell in embryonic and young adult NSC divisions, whereas in the older adult brain, damaged proteins are more symmetrically distributed between progeny. Thus, these data identify a mechanism of how damage that accumulates with age is asymmetrically distributed during somatic stem cell division.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moore, D L -- Pilz, G A -- Arauzo-Bravo, M J -- Barral, Y -- Jessberger, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1334-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9868.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Science, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Biodonostia Health Research Institute, 20014 San Sebastian, Spain. IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013 Bilbao, Spain. ; Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Science, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. jessberger@hifo.uzh.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Aging ; *Cell Division ; Diffusion ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/physiology/ultrastructure ; Intracellular Membranes/physiology/ultrastructure ; Lamin Type A/*metabolism ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Photobleaching ; Prosencephalon/cytology/growth & development/metabolism ; Protein Transport
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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