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  • 1
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0449-2951
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 9-Vinylanthracene has been polymerized in a wide variety of cationic systems. Under these conditions of polymerization, the vinyl group and the center ring of the anthracene nucleus act as a 1,3,5-triene system. Evidence for the structure of the product was obtained from infrared, ultraviolet, and particularly nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the presence of trifluoroacetic acid, poly-9-vinylanthracene was converted to poly-9,10-dimethyleneanthracene.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: 2D-J NMR heteronuclear spectroscopy ; Selective irradiation ; Long-range Proton—Carbon couplings ; Glycoside derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Long-range J(CH) values were measured for six glycoside derivatives by a selective 2D-J heteronuclear sequence. The values obtained are discussed in terms of conformational effects and constitute a valuable contribution to 2J and 3J comprehension.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The application of radiotracer technique for the determination of small corrosion rates of tantalum, a tantalum-niobium-alloy and zirconium in azeotropic nitric acidThe radiotracer technique following neutron activation is a suitable means to measure hitherto hardly detectable, very low corrosion rates. In azeotropic nitric acid, tantalum and the tantalum-40niobium alloy show at 20 to 120°C approximately the same corrosion rates between 0.2 · 10-6 and 8 · 10-6 mm/a; the apparent activation energies are 30 to 40 kJ/mol.In the temperature region from 20 up to 81°C the corrosion rates of zirconium are between 7 · 10-6 and 5 · 10-4 mm/a; the apparent activation energy is 47 kJ/mol.In the case of zirconium, check measurements (analysis of the corrosive medium with AAS and ICP) with non-activated sheet-metal sections resulted in similar corrosion rates.
    Notes: Die Radiotracer-Methode nach Neutronenaktivierung ist geeignet, bisher kaum erfaßbare, sehr geringe Abtragungsraten zu bestimmen. Tantal und die Tantal-40Niob-Lergierung zeigen in azeotroper Salpetersäure bei 22 bis 120°C annähernd gleiche Abtragungsraten von 0,2 · 10-6 bis 8 · 10-6 mm/a; die scheinbaren Aktivierungsenergien betragen 30 bis 40 kJ/mol.Die Abtragungsraten von Zirconium liegen im Temperaturbereich von 20 bis 81°C zwischen 7 · 10-6 und 5 · 10-4 mm/a; die scheinbare Aktivierungsenergie ergibt sich zu 47 kJ/mol.Im Falle des Zirconiums führten Kontrollmessungen (Analyse des Angriffsmittels mit AAS und ICP) an nicht aktivierten Blechabschnitten zu vergleichbaren Abtragungsraten.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 17 (1975), S. 1617-1626 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Catalase was immobilized on commercially available monolithic catalyst supports and also on participate support obtained by crushing the monolith. The kinetics of the monolith- and particulate-supported enzymes were analyzed in a continuous tubular reactor system and pressure drop was also monitored. Analysis of the results indicates that the monolith-supported system presents very little resistance to flow which results in a considerably smaller pressure drop than is obtained in flow through particulate-supported systems under comparable conversion conditions. Ceramic monoliths thus appear to be very suitable for use as enzyme supports in continuous tubular reactor applications, particularly where high pressure drops might be expected.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1022-1344
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Self-avoiding walks (SAWs) and random-flight walks (RFWs) of various lengths embedded on a simple cubic lattice have been computer generated inside cubes of varying side. If B is the side of the confining cube, we define the reduced cube side size B0 as B0 = (B - 1)/〈r2〉1/2, where 〈r2〉1/2 is the root-mean-square end-to-end distance of the non-confined chains. Dimensionless diagrams are then given of the Monte Carlo estimates for the dimensions, the entropy, and the compressibility parameter PV/(kT) of the confined chains as a function of B0. The comparative behaviour of the confined SAWs and RFWs is established, scaling properties are examined, and the Monte Carlo estimates compared with theory when such theory is available.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 38 (1991), S. 1308-1317 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Trichoderma reesei CL-847 ; steam explosion treatment ; saccharification ; inactivation ; cellulose ; hemicelluloses ; lignin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Effects of time, temperature, and pH during the steam explosion of poplar wood were studied with the aim of optimize both pentoses recovery and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Steam explosion of acid impregnated wood chips allowed the recovery of 70% of potential xylose as monomers (217°C, 120 s) Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated fiber with Trichoderma reesei CL-847 cellulase system increased progressively with the severity of the steam treatment conditions. The best yield in term of glucose recovery after 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis was 70% of potential glucose (225°C, 120 s). Deactivation by adsorption on lignin of Trichoderma reesei cellulases and inhibition of these enzymes by low-molecular-weight phenols and trihydroxybutyric acids were noticed.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 7 (1963), S. 617-624 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A series of poly(acrylhydrazones) has been prepared by the condensation of dihydrazides with dialdehydes and diketones. The dihydrazides included those derived from isophthalic, sebacic, and adipic acids. Terephthalaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, p-diacetylbenzene, and 2,5-hexanedione were the dicarbonyl compounds used. Polymers derived from terephthalaldehyde were of high molecular weight. The polymers varied in crystalinity, fusion point, and solubility in the expected manner. Thermal and hydrolytic stabilities were moderately good. Tough films were cast from a number of the soluble polymers. These films could be isolubilized by reaction with cupric acetate.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The radiotracer technique as a means to investigate the corrosion of zirconium, tantalum, and a Ta-40Nb alloy in fluoride containing azeotropic nitric acidZirconium and tantalum as well as the tantalum 40% niobium alloy are of considerable technical importance due to their high corrosion resistance against numerous corrosive media. With respect to corrosion testing in analytically pure azeotropic nitric acid in the temperature range between 20 and 121°C, corrosion rates were determined for zirconium: 7 · 10-6 to 5 · 10-4 mm/y, for tantalum: 10-8 to 4 · 10-6 mm/y, and for the Ta-40Nb alloy: 2 · 10-7 to 8 · 10-6 mm/y [1]. These corrosion rates will be markedly increased by adding small amounts of fluorides or by fluoride impurities.The radiotracer method after neutron activation was applied to determine the corrosion rates in azeotropic fluoride containing nitric acid. Even minute additions of fluorides strongly affect the corrosion resistance of zirconium. In the range between 0.15 and 10 ppm F- and at a temperature of 108°C, corrosion rates between 5.3 · 10-3 and 3.1 mm/y were measured. It was impossible to establish a limit for the fluoride concentration, below which the corrosion rate of zirconium will not be adversely influenced.The corrosion rates of tantalum and the Ta-40Nb alloy are considerably increasing above a fluoride concentration of 10 ppm. The highest corrosion rates measured were between 8.4 · 10-3 mm/y at 50°C/280 ppm F- and 1.4 · 10-2 mm/y at 110°C/320 ppm F-. Within the range of this investigation, the corrosion resistance of tantalum was higher than that of the Ta-40Nb alloy by one order of magnitude.The corrosion resistance of zirconium and tantalum was not influenced by any treatment of the samples before testing.
    Notes: Wegen ihrer hohen Korrosionsbeständigkeit gegenüber zahlreichen Angriffsmitteln sind Zirconium und Tantal sowie die Legierung Tantal-40Niob von großer technischer Bedeutung. Die bisher in azeotroper Salpetersäure p.a. zwischen 20 und 121°C gemessenen Abtragungsraten liegen für Zirconium zwischen 7 · 10-6 und 5 · 10-4 mm/a, für Tantal zwischen 10-8 und 4 · 10-6 mm/a und für die Legierung Ta-40Nb zwischen 2 · 10-7 und 8 · 10-6 mm/a [1]. Diese Abtragungsraten werden durch geringe Fluoridzustände oder -verunreinigungen wesentlich erhöht.Mit der Radiotracermethode nach Neutronenaktivierung wurden die Abtragungsraten in azeotroper, fluoridhaltiger Salpetersäure bestimmt. Zirconium ist schon gegen kleinste Fluoridspuren sehr empfindlich. Im untersuchten Bereich von 0.15 bis 10 ppm F- liegen bei 108°C die Abtragungsraten zwischen 5.3 · 10-3 und 3.1 mm/a. Eine Grenzkonzentration, unterhalb der das Fluorid die Korrosionsgeschwindigkeit nicht mehr beeinflußt, kann für Zirconium nicht angegeben werden.Bei Tantal und der Legierung Ta-40Nb nimmt oberhalb einer Grenzkonzentration von 10 ppm F- die Korrosionsgeschwindigkeit stark zu. Die höchsten Abtragungsraten liegen zwischen 8.4 · 10-3 mm/a bei 50°C/280 ppm F- und 1.4 · 10-2 mm/a bei 110°C/320 ppm F-. Dabei ist Tantal über den gesamten erfaßten Bereich um etwa das Zehnfache beständiger als die Legierung Ta-40Nb.Sowohl bei Tantal als auch bei Zirconium stellt sich die Abtragungsrate unabhängig von Vorbehandlungen ein.
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