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  • transforming growth factor-β1  (2)
  • Chemistry  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: prostaglandin ; phospholipase A2 ; age ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; transforming growth factor-β1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites, are important local mediators of bone remodeling. Presumably, the limited or excessive synthesis of the eicosanoids could compromise bone homeostasis. We have noted that the stimulated release of arachidonic acid by adult male donor derived human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells exceeded the stimulated release measured for female-derived hOB cells by 1.5-fold. Assays of PGE2 biosynthesis by cytokine-stimulated hOB cells also demonstrated a sex-linked difference, such that male hOB cell PGE2 production exceeded female cell production by 1.6-2.2-fold. The calcium-dependent cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity in subcellular fractions prepared from hOB cell homogenates was higher in both the cytosolic (1.6-fold) and particulate (1.5-fold) fractions from the male cells than in those prepared from female hOB cells, suggesting a molecular basis for the observed sexually dimorphic characteristics related to arachidonic acid metabolism by hOB cells. The relatively limited capacity of the female cells may limit needed intracellular and intercellular signaling during bone remodeling, thereby contributing to the development of bone pathology. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:74-81, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cyclooxygenase ; transforming growth factor-β1 ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; interleukin-1β ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by cytokine stimulated normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells was evaluated by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and specific immunoassays. PGE2 was the predominant PG formed under all incubation conditions tested. Control samples produced measurable amounts of PGE2, and the measured level of this metabolite increased by 22-fold (from 7 to 152 ng/ml) following a 20 h treatment with the combination of TGFβ and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF). The production of 6-keto-PGF1α (the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) and of PGF2α were each increased by about five-fold (from about 0.5 to 2.5 ng/ml) in samples treated with the cytokines. Thus, TGFβ and TNF exerted a regulation of hOB cell PG biosynthesis that was principally directed towards an increased PGE2 biosynthesis, with lesser effects on the production of other PG metabolites. COX-2 mRNA levels were increased within 2 h of cytokine stimulation, reached a maximum at 6-12 h, and levels had appreciably diminished by 24 h after treatment. Both TGFβ and TNF could independently increase COX-2 mRNA levels and PG biosynthesis. However, the increased production of PGE2 resulting from TNF stimulation was blocked by the addition of an interleukin-1β (IL-1β) neutralizing antibody, suggesting that TNF regulation of hOB cell PG synthesis was secondary to its capacity to increase hOB cell IL-1β production. TGFβ regulation of PG production was not affected by the addition of the neutralizing antibody. These studies support the proposition that PGs can be important autocrine/paracrine mediators of bone biology, whose production by hOB cells is responsively regulated by osteotropic cytokines. J. Cell. Biochem. 64:618-631. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this work is to use dynamic histomorphometry to evaluate the basic biological mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) implant coatings accelerate bone formation rates. Twenty-five rabbits had an HA/TCP coated cylindrical titanium fiber metal mesh implant surgically placed in the subchondral bone of the proximal tibia and a noncoated implant placed in the contralateral tibia. Twenty-two of these animals had HA/TCP coated cylindrical solid titanium implants placed in the distal femur and an uncoated implant placed in te contraleteral femur. The animals were double labeled with vital stains, and sacrificed at 3, 6, 16, or 26 weeks after surgery. Histomorphometric analyses were done of the bone implant interfaces. Both static and dynamic histomorphometric parameters indicate that HA/TCP coatings stimulate faster bone ingrowth to coated fiber metal implants through the early production of woven bone and by subsequent rapid lamellar bone formation rates. Coated fiber metal implants demonstrated significantly more bone ingrowth than noncoated implants through 16 weeks postimplatatin, but not by 26 weeks, In solid implants, the differences between coated and noncoated implants are less pronouned and not statistically significant, although there is a trend toward increased bone appostion to the surface of the implants over the first 16 weeks following implantation. The clinical significance of these results is that coated implants may allow earlier return to normal weightbearing. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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