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  • Investments  (5)
  • Chemistry  (4)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 537 (1986), S. 7-16 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Kinetics and Mechanism of the α/βαTransformation of Li2ZnGeThe α/β-transformation of Li2ZnGe was investigated by differential thermal analysis under nearly isothermal conditions. The possible mechanisms of solid state reactions are represented using the integrated and differentiated kinetic equations. For the investigation of DTA curves soft ware is developed to calculate the activation parameters and to find an adequate kinetic equation. A mechanism for the α/β-transformation of Li2ZnGe is proposed and discussed.
    Notes: Die α/β-Umwandlung von Li2ZnGe wurde mit Hilfe der Differenzthermoanalyse unter „quasi-isothermen“ Bedingungen untersucht. Die möglichen Mechanismen für Festkörperreaktionen werden in Form der integrierten und differenzierten kinetischen Gleichungen vorgestellt. Für die Auswertung experimenteller DTA-Kurven wurden Computer-Programme entwickelt, die es erlauben, die Aktivierungsparameter zu berechnen und eine adäquate kinetische Gleichung zu finden. Für die α/β-Umwandlung von Li2ZnGe wird ein Mechanismus vorgeschlagen und diskutiert.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations in the Ternary System Lithium-Zinc-Germanium by Differential Thermal AnalysisThe section Li/Zn, Ge(1:1) of the ternary system lithium-zinc-germanium was investigated by differential thermal analysis and x-ray methods. Besides the well known phases α-, β-Li2ZnGe and Li1.25ZnGe a further so far unknown phase (δ) was obtained. In the system there are two peritectic reactions and one eutectic. The α/β-transformation of Li2ZnGe was investigated by differential thermal analysis and a mechanism of this transformation is proposed.
    Notes: Der Schnitt Li/Zn, Ge (1:1) im Dreistoff-System Lithium-Zink-Germanium wurde differenzthermoanalytisch und röntgenographisch untersucht. Neben den bekannten Phasen α-, β-Li2ZnGe und Li1,25 ZnGe wurde eine weitere bisher unbekannte Phase (δ) gefunden. Das System besitzt zwei Peritektika und ein Eutektikum. Die α/β-Umwandlung von Li2ZnGe wurde mit Hilfe der Differenzthermoanalyse näher untersucht, ein Umwandlungsmechanismus wird vorgeschlagen.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 1,2,4-Triazines, 5-chloro, 5-amino, 5-cyano, 5-(ω-alkinyloxy) ; Imidazo[4,5-e]-1,2,4-triazines ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Chemistry of 1,2,4-Triazines, XIV.  -  Synthesis and Reactions of 5-Chloro-1,2,4-triazines5-Chloro-1,2,4-triazines 4 are prepared from 1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-ones 3 and transfered into 5-amino- (7), 5-cyano (8), and 5-(ω-alkinyloxy)-1,2,4-triazines (9). 7a-d are cyclized to imidazo[4,5-e]1,2,4-triazines (10a-d).
    Additional Material: 10 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 1,2,4-Triazin-6(1H)-ones ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazines, XV.  -  Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazin-6(1H)-ones1,2,4-Triazin-6(1H)-ones 3 have been prepared by cyclization of α-ketoacyl chlorides 15 with amidrazones 14. 4,5-Dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-6(1H)-ones 5 were obtained by cyclization of amino acid hydrazides 10 with orthocarboxylates 11.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Since early 2009, electricity and gas distribution in Germany has been subject to incentive regulation designed to ensure greater efficiency in electricity and gas grid operation. However, it remains to be seen how changes to the regulatory framework will affect the investment behavior of distribution system operators. Against this background, the present study empirically analyzes the investment activities of distribution system operators for the period from 2006 to 2012. The key questions are whether the introduction of incentive regulation in 2009 has had an empirically demonstrable impact on investment and whether this effect is due to the introduction of incentive regulation per se, or to its specific design. The findings show a positive effect on investment since the introduction of incentive regulation which, in particular, is determined by the specific design of regulation.
    Keywords: D22 ; L51 ; L94 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Regulation ; Network Industries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: We analyze the effects of an incentive based regulatory scheme with revenue caps on the investment behaviors and decisions of 109 electricity distribution companies operating in Germany in 2006-2012. We hypothesize that Germany's implementation of incentive regulation in 2009 has a negative impact on total investment, and that firms increase their investments in the base year. We build a model that controls for both firm-specific heterogeneity and ownership structure and test it with the German data. The results show that investments increase after incentive regulation, and that the institutional constraints used to determine the revenue caps influence the distribution companies' investment decisions. We also note that the investments increase in the base year when the rate base is determined for the following regulatory period. We conclude that a comprehensive assessment of Germany's electricity distribution companies' investment decisions and behaviors should account for firm specific heterogeneity. It should further include all institutional aspects of incentive regulation to design incentives that will foster investments in the region's energy networks.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; Incentive Regulation ; Electricity Distribution ; Investments ; Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: A considerable share of public investment comes not only from public budgets but also from public utility companies. One major area of investment is energy and water supply, where the utility companies have substantial fixed assets in the form of distribution infrastructure. Using new microdata which has not been analyzed before, the present report shows that-unlike with the core public budgets-public energy and water supply companies show no signs of insufficient investment. On the contrary, gross investment into distribution networks over the past ten years has shown an upward trend comparable to that of private energy and water supply companies-if investment related to the expansion of infrastructure resulting from the energy transition is not taken into account. In addition, no clear correlation was found between the investment expenditure of energy and water supply companies and the financial strength or demographic trends within a given region. However, this does not rule out the possibility of diverging investment trends in the near future in response to demographic changes.
    Keywords: R53 ; L33 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Public Utilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Einen beachtlichen Anteil öffentlicher Investitionen tätigen - außerhalb der öffentlichen Haushalte - kommunale Unternehmen, beispielsweise Stadtwerke. Ein bedeutender Investitionsbereich ist die Energie- und Wasserversorgung, da die Unternehmen über beträchtliche Sachanlagen in der leitungsgebundenen Infrastruktur verfügen. Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt auf Basis erstmalig verfügbarer Mikrodaten, dass es in der ausgelagerten Energie- und Wasserversorgung - im Gegensatz zu den kommunalen Kernhaushalten - keine Anhaltspunkte für unzureichende Investitionen gibt. Vielmehr folgten die Bruttoinvestitionen in Leitungsanlagen während der vergangenen zehn Jahre einem steigenden Trend, der mit dem der privaten Energie- und Wasserversorgungsunternehmen - sieht man von Erweiterungsinvestitionen im Rahmen der Energiewende ab - vergleichbar ist. Darüber hinaus lässt sich kein eindeutiger Zusammenhang zwischen dem Investitionsverhalten eines kommunalen Energie- und Wasserversorgers und der regionalen Finanzkraft beziehungsweise Bevölkerungsentwicklung finden. Dies schließt jedoch nicht aus, dass insbesondere der demographische Wandel in Zukunft zu regionalen Unterschieden beim Investitionsbedarf führen kann.
    Description: A considerable share of public investment comes not only from public budgets but also from public utility companies. One major area of investment is energy and water supply, where the utility companies have substantial fixed assets in the form of distribution infrastructure. Using new microdata which has not been analyzed before, the present report shows that-unlike with the core public budgets-public energy and water supply companies show no signs of insufficient investment. On the contrary, gross investment into distribution networks over the past ten years has shown an upward trend comparable to that of private energy and water supply companies-if investment related to the expansion of infrastructure resulting from the energy transition is not taken into account. In addition, no clear correlation was found between the investment expenditure of energy and water supply companies and the financial strength or demographic trends within a given region. However, this does not rule out the possibility of diverging investment trends in the near future in response to demographic changes.
    Keywords: R53 ; L33 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Public Utilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Seit Anfang 2009 unterliegt die Energieversorgung in Deutschland der Anreizregulierung, durch die ein effizienter Betrieb von Strom- und Gasnetzen sichergestellt werden soll. Unklar ist allerdings, wie sich die veränderten regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen auf das Investitionsverhalten der Netzbetreiber auswirken. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in der vorliegenden Untersuchung die Investitionstätigkeit der Netzbetreiber für den Zeitraum von 2006 bis 2012 empirisch analysiert. Zentrale Fragestellungen sind, ob der Einführung der Anreizregulierung ab 2009 ein empirisch nachweisbarer Einfluss auf die Investitionstätigkeit zugeschrieben werden kann und ob dieser Einfluss auf die Einführung der Anreizregulierung per se oder auf ihre spezifische Ausgestaltung zurückgeht. Im Ergebnis kann mit Einführung der Anreizregulierung ein positiver Effekt auf die Investitionstätigkeit festgestellt werden, der insbesondere durch die spezifische Ausgestaltung der Regulierung bestimmt wird.
    Description: Since early 2009, power supply in Germany has been subject to incentive regulation designed to ensure greater efficiency in electricity and gas grid operation. However, it remains to be seen how changes to the regulatory framework will affect the investment behavior of distribution system operators. Against this background, the present study empirically analyzes the investment activities of distribution system operators for the period from 2006 to 2012. The key questions are whether the introduction of incentive regulation from 2009 onwards can be attributed to an empirically demonstrable impact on investment and whether this effect is due to the introduction of incentive regulation per se, or to its specific design. The findings show a positive effect on investment since the introduction of incentive regulation which, in particular, is determined by the specific design of regulation.
    Keywords: D22 ; L51 ; L94 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Regulation ; Network Industries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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