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  • 1
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the poor solvent acetone/ethanol the viscosity of a 3% solution of 12.6% N pyro nitrocellulose is found to be related to the geometric mean of the number average and weight average molecular weights. The fractional increase in the viscosity of such a solution on the addition of lead ß-resorcylate is a function only of number average molecular weight. Once calibration has been made against osmotic pressure measurements and intrinsic viscosity, both number and weight average may be measured rapidly with an accuracy which is no less than that of the osmotic pressure and intrinsic viscosity measurements themselves.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deterioration of polyolefin, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide films under soil burial conditions extending up to 32 months has been investigated. Based on changes in their elongation at break, the films can be ranked in order of increasing sensitivity to degradation: Polyester ≃ polypropylene 〈 low-density polyethylene ≃ high-density polyethylene 〈 nylon 6.6. The degraded nylon 6.6 and polyethylene films were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by wet analysis for hydroperoxides. From a comparison with the well-known oxidative sensitivity of nylon 6.6 in oxygenated water at slightly elevated temperatures, the rapid deterioration of nylon 6.6 film during soil burial was also concluded to be an oxidative process. The somewhat smaller, but significant, embrittlement of the polyethylenes studied could not be simply explained by thermal oxidation (with only trace oxidation products detectable) or microbiological attack (deterioration being unaffected by surface activation to enhance wettability).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Results of pilot plant studies using a glass airlift fermentation device (55 liter fermentation volume) have proven the relative merits of such a system in the fermentation of a filamentous mold, Monascus purpureus, on 4% (w/w) starch media. The resultant overall yield of cell mass (Yx/s) of 0.38 was an appreciable increase over the 0.32 obtained with a pilot scale stirred tank fermentor previously studied. Power requirements of the airlift fermentor were approximately 50% of those for the mechanically agitated system. The lack of mechanical shear in the airlift system provides a more gentle environment or the cultivation of organisms than does the high degree of shear prevalent in the mechanically agitated vessels. Mass transfer of oxygen to the aqueous phase of the fermentation volume is improved significantly through use of the airlift device. Mass transfer coefficients in the range of 200 reciprocal hr were obtained to approximately 80 reciprocal hr in the stirred tank fermentor.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: As part of a study to make a comparative analysis of selected halogenated compounds in man and the environmental media, a quantitative gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis of the levels of the halogenated compounds found in the breath, blood and urine of an exposed population (Old Love Canal area, Niagara, New York) and their immediate environment (air and water) was undertaken. In addition, levels of halogenated hydrocarbons in air samples taken in the general Buffalo, Niagara Falls area were determined.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Mean free paths for inelastic scattering (λ) of low energy electrons in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been determined by measuring Al Kα excited C 1s and Si 2s photoelectron signal intensities as a function of ellipsometrically determined thicknesses of PMMA overlayers on silicon substrates. The λ values obtained are 29 ± 4 Å for 1196 eV electrons and 33 ± 5 Å for 1328 eV electrons. These data are necessary for the quantitative analysis of the surface region of PMMA and similar polymers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnitude of the λ values determined indicates that XPS measurements can provide chemical information about the surface region of polymers, such as PMMA, in the depth range of ∼6 to 100 Å. The results of this study are compared and discussed with respect to λ values determined for other organic compounds.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Fire and Materials 7 (1983), S. 79-88 
    ISSN: 0308-0501
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: There are two major fire processes, an understanding of which is essential for effective fire safety design: (1) the conditions under which a combustible material may become involved in flaming combustion, and (2) the rate at which such a material, once involved, will provide an output of heat, smoke, toxic gases, etc., which can endanger people and property. The first process may be regarded as covering both ignition and spread of fire on materials; its complement is the way in which fire may become extinguished. It is necessary for such processes to bring in a characteristic of the basic combustion reaction which, directly or indirectly, expresses the reactivity of the combustion process. Thus pilot ignition is usually associated with an approximate surface fuel temperature. More basically, it is associated with a critical flow rate of volatiles and a critical heat loss from the flame, the latter being influenced by ambient oxygen and temperatures conditions as well as heat lost and gained by the fuel itself. The most important factor governing the production of dangerous product is the rate at which volatiles first (fuel controlled fires) and later air (air controlled fires) are fed into the flames. The reactivity is of less importance, although it may be one of the factors which control combustion efficiency. In general, the more efficient is the combustion the more heat is produced, but the less smoke and toxic gases are produced. Some of the main advances in the above areas are reviewed in this paper.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The IR spectra (1400 cm-1 to 160 cm-1) of the gases at ambient temperature and the Raman spectra (below 1400 cm-1) of the liquids near -196°C are reported for CF3OF and CF3OCl. All fundamentals are assigned under Cs symmetry and the results of a normal coordinate analysis are presented. The assignments of Smardzewski and Fox are adopted with one exception for both CF3OF and CF3OCl: the CF3 rock of A″ symmetry is assigned near 430 cm-1 and the two bands between 200 cm-1 and 300 cm-1 are assigned to an A′ fundamental, involving CF3 rocking and COX bending and a Δν=2 transition in the CF3 torsion. An extra band at 548 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of liquid CF3 COl near -196°C is assigned to a CF3OCl⃛Cl2 complex. The values of the force constants d(OX) for CF3OX molecules are suggested to be near those for X2O molecules. More than half the normal modes of A′ symmetry show extensive mixing of symmetry coordinates. In some of these cases the symmetry coordinate for which the normal mode is named is the largest but not the dominant contributor to the potential energy distribution, while in others this symmetry coordinate is not even the largest contributor to the potential energy distribution. No normal modes of A′ symmetry are present in which ν(CO), δs(CF3), δ(COX), or δ(CF3) symmetry coordinates are dominant, and the mode conventionally labeled as v(CO) should be labeled as νs(CF3). For the remaining A′ normal modes and all the A″ normal modes, the symmetry coordinate for which the normal mode is named is dominant in the potential energy distribution.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 14 (1983), S. 144-149 
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Raman spectra of thallous carbonate have been studied to c. 52 kbar and mid-IR spectra to 36 kbar. Details of the assignment have also been established using single-crystal IR reflectance and Raman spectroscopy. Phase transitions were found near 13 and 38 kbar on the basis of the Raman evidence, thus supporting the earlier conclusions of Meisalo and Kalliomaki based on x-ray powder and optical results. Analysis of possible space group relations between phases III (ambient) and IV showed that IV must be orthorhombic and adopt one of the D2hn groups, where n = 17, 19, 21, 25 or 28. Structural relationships between the phases are discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two NQR lines were observed for 35Cl in 2,5-dichloro-4-nitroaniline at room temperature, using a self-quenched super-regenerative spectrometer. Analysis of the Zeeman effect on the two lines using a cylindrical single crystal reveals that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system. The principal field gradient Z axes enclose an angle of 35° and 28° in the cases of the low and high frequency resonance lines, respectively. The b axis is parallel to 81°, 280°. The unit cell contains either two or a multiple of two molecules. The molecules in the crystal can be arranged into two sets, with the molecular planes in each set being parallel among each other. The angle subtended between the two planes is 159° and each of the planes is inclined to the b axis at an angle of 79.5°. There is an in-plane bending of the two C—Cl bonds by 5.5°. The ionic, single bond and double bond characters of the C—Cl bonds for both chlorines are almost equal, and are in the ratio 24:73:3.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The effects of protonation and hydrogen bonding in linear Schiff bases obtained from n-butylamine with butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, sorbaldehyde and all-trans-retinal were studied by means of 15N and 13C NMR. The protonation-induced chemical shifts (Δδ) are an order of magnitude larger for 15N than for 13C. For 15N, this effect was found to increase with the extent of conjugation, culminating in the retinylideneimine (Δδ = -146 ppm), which constitutes a model for the study of the structure of the Schiff base linkage in visual pigments and related systems. Theoretical calculations of protonation-induced Δδ values based on MINDO/ 3 are in agreement with experimental results.
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