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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deterioration of polyolefin, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide films under soil burial conditions extending up to 32 months has been investigated. Based on changes in their elongation at break, the films can be ranked in order of increasing sensitivity to degradation: Polyester ≃ polypropylene 〈 low-density polyethylene ≃ high-density polyethylene 〈 nylon 6.6. The degraded nylon 6.6 and polyethylene films were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by wet analysis for hydroperoxides. From a comparison with the well-known oxidative sensitivity of nylon 6.6 in oxygenated water at slightly elevated temperatures, the rapid deterioration of nylon 6.6 film during soil burial was also concluded to be an oxidative process. The somewhat smaller, but significant, embrittlement of the polyethylenes studied could not be simply explained by thermal oxidation (with only trace oxidation products detectable) or microbiological attack (deterioration being unaffected by surface activation to enhance wettability).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Results of pilot plant studies using a glass airlift fermentation device (55 liter fermentation volume) have proven the relative merits of such a system in the fermentation of a filamentous mold, Monascus purpureus, on 4% (w/w) starch media. The resultant overall yield of cell mass (Yx/s) of 0.38 was an appreciable increase over the 0.32 obtained with a pilot scale stirred tank fermentor previously studied. Power requirements of the airlift fermentor were approximately 50% of those for the mechanically agitated system. The lack of mechanical shear in the airlift system provides a more gentle environment or the cultivation of organisms than does the high degree of shear prevalent in the mechanically agitated vessels. Mass transfer of oxygen to the aqueous phase of the fermentation volume is improved significantly through use of the airlift device. Mass transfer coefficients in the range of 200 reciprocal hr were obtained to approximately 80 reciprocal hr in the stirred tank fermentor.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two NQR lines were observed for 35Cl in 2,5-dichloro-4-nitroaniline at room temperature, using a self-quenched super-regenerative spectrometer. Analysis of the Zeeman effect on the two lines using a cylindrical single crystal reveals that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system. The principal field gradient Z axes enclose an angle of 35° and 28° in the cases of the low and high frequency resonance lines, respectively. The b axis is parallel to 81°, 280°. The unit cell contains either two or a multiple of two molecules. The molecules in the crystal can be arranged into two sets, with the molecular planes in each set being parallel among each other. The angle subtended between the two planes is 159° and each of the planes is inclined to the b axis at an angle of 79.5°. There is an in-plane bending of the two C—Cl bonds by 5.5°. The ionic, single bond and double bond characters of the C—Cl bonds for both chlorines are almost equal, and are in the ratio 24:73:3.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: GC/MS ; Capillary columns, fused silica ; Priority pollutants ; Quantitation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Operational characteristics have been determined for fused silica capillary column (FSCC) GC/MS as applied to “extractable” priority polutants. Chromatographic data show excellent relative retention time (RRT) intralaboratory precision and interlaboratory accuracy when multiple internal standards are empolyed. Potential chromatographic problems, such as column overload and “double peaking”, are addressed. Response factor relative standard deviations (RSD) at 50 ng for most of the extractable priority pollutants over the long term indicated precise determination (i.e. RSD generally ≤ 10%). Linearity was demonstrated over two orders of magnitude for FSCC GC/MS analysis of compounds with relatively low and high RF (response factor) values. Potential quantitative problems, such as saturation, are discussed. For certain aromatic priority pollutants interlaboratory RF agreement was observed. This was noted as perhaps the most important property of FSCC GC/MS analysis when the multiple internal standard approach is utilized. Determinations of extractable priority pollutants are directly compared for paced column GC/MS and FSCC GC/MS analysis of separate and composited extracts. For six extracts analyzed in triplicate, the latter configuration was shown to produce more consistent results. In view of the superior analysis logistics of composite extract FSCC GC/MS analysis, this approach was established as the preferred method for the analysis of priority pollutants classified as extractable.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method has been developed for the quantitation of the putative phenolamine neurotransmitter octopamine, and its precursor tyramine, in brain tissue. The procedure employs methane chemical ionization of the pentafluoropropionate derivatives of octopamine and tyramine together with the use of deuterated internal standards and selected ion monitoring. Deuterated analogues of octopamine and tyramine are added to brain homogenates in aqueous perchloric acid and ion exchange is used to isolate the brain amines. The method is capable of measuring 20 pg of octopamine and tyramine. The measured concentration (ng g-1 wet tissue) of octopamine and tyramine in rat brain was as follows: whole brain (less cerebellum) (0.6 and 2.2); hypothalamus (3.2 and tyramine value not statistically significant); striatum (0.5 and 11.8) and cortex (0.6 and 1.0). Administration of pargyline resulted in an increase (around ten-fold) in octopamine and tyramine concentration in all the above brain regions. In contrast α-methyltyrosine produced only a small increase (50%) in the concentration of tyramine in the striatum.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 27 (1981), S. 1043-1044 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 27 (1981), S. 975-984 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Filtration of carbon black particles from tetralin through a bed of sand with simultaneous measurement of bed streaming potential shows that the charge on the filter and its neutralization by depositing colloidal particles plays an important role in filter performance. Filter capacities up to the point of charge neutralization, calculated from knowledge of the colloid and filter zeta potentials using a semitheoretical model for variation of filter surface charge characteristics, are found to be in good agreement with experimental values.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The gases CO, CO2, and H2 were used as substrates in anaerobic fermentations producing organic acids. Various mixed bacterial sources were used, including sewage sludge digester effluent, rabbit feces, and soil. Nonsterile microorganism selection was carried out using CO2/H2 and CO/H2 as the primary carbon and energy sources. Cultures were grown in specially designed, high-pressure (to 70 psig) flasks. Methanogenic bacteria were eliminated from the cultures. Liquid products of the fermentations were acetic through caproic acids, with the even-numbered acids predominating. Carbon balances showed conclusively that acetic acid was formed from carbon contained in the CO or CO2 feed gas. Measurements made included rates of acid product formation, cell density, and degree of gas utilization. Limited characterization of the microorganisms was also performed. Production of organic acids by mixed culture inocula from CO2/H2 or CO/H2 had not been reported previously. Application of this work is to the production of organic chemicals from synthesis gas (SNG), produced by the gasification of fossil fuels (peat, lignite, and various ranks of coals), biomass (agricultural and forest residues, and various biomass crops grown expressly for energy recovery), and municipal solid waste.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Thermoplastic interpenetrating polymer networks, IPN's, are defined as combinations of two physically crosslinked polymers. A styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene (SEBS) triblock elastomer was combined with an ionomer prepared from a random copolymer of styrene, methacrylic acid, and isoprene (90/10/1 by volume), and subsequently neutralized. Two subclasses of the thermoplastic IPN's were identified. A sequential polymerization method yielded the chemically blended thermoplastic IPN's (CBT IPN's). Melt blending of the separately synthesized polymers produced the mechanically blended thermoplastic IPN's (MBT IPN's). Stress-strain and Rheovibron characterization revealed that the CBT IPN's exhibited greater tensile strength and higher elongation at break, but lower moduli than the MBT IPN materials of the same overall composition. Analysis of moduli data with the theories of Takayanagi, Davies, Budiansky, and Kerner disclosed more equal dual phase continuity for the MBT IPN's than the CBT IPN's at each composition. The low modulus of the more rubbery CBT IPN compositions was attributed to a decrease in the effective chain end-to-end distance between crosslinks in the elastomeric (EB) center block, brought about by the synthetic method.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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