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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 34 (1988), S. 618-625 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study of the efficiencies of two plate distillation columns is reported. One column had three rectangular trays with a flow path length of about 1 m, the other was a modified glass Oldershaw column with one tray of 38 mm dia. Tray efficiencies were measured in both columns and point efficiencies were deduced for the rectangular column.The systems studied were ternary and quaternary mixtures of alcohols and water. The results showed that for thermodynamically nonideal systems significant differences existed among the individual component point efficiencies. In the case of an ideal system the component point efficiencies were effectively equal, but tray efficiencies were different due to differing volatilities and composition profiles across the large trays.This study illustrates the need to allow for the above effects in large-column designs for multicomponent systems. The possibility of using laboratory-scale point efficiencies in these designs is explored.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The chemistry that underlies positive imaging, Image Reversal (ImRe) and Built In Mask (BIM), has been investigated. For this purpose the photoactive compound 2, 1 -diazonaphthoquinone-5-(4-cumylphenyl)-sulfonate (PAC-5), the corresponding indenecarboxylic acid (ICA-5) and the decarboxylated derivative of ICA-5 (indene), were isolated and characterized. The study revealed that dissolution of ICA-5 in aqueous base developers gives rise to the formation of an indenyl carboxylate dianion, which decarboxylates in several hours. In the case that ICA-5 is dissolved in weakly alkaline media or in organic solvents such as methanol, the formation of this ion does not occur, but the rate of decarboxylation is almost the same. It is suggested that the decarboxylation reaction proceeds via the indene carboxylate monoanion, which reacts to indenyl anion. The latter is a strong base and is readily protonated to give indene (two isomers). In the case of aqueous base this leads to precipitation of the indene. In agreement with the finding that the indene derived from ICA-5 does not dissolve in aqueous base developers, it was found that mixing indenes into novolak has a considerable inhibitive effect on the dissolution rate of a layer of this material in aqueous base. After a bake (in ImRe this would be the reversal bake), the dissolution rate is almost the same as for unexposed photoresist. Similar experiments with mixtures of novolak and indenecarboxylic acid revealed that there is no difference in the dissolution rate of such layers as compared with exposed photoresist. This excludes the putative effect of porosity, caused by nitrogen extrusion. In the case that 1-phenyl-3-morpholinotriazene is added to the photoresist (in order to produce a dye in the BIM concept), azo-dyes are formed by coupling of diazonium ions on the 1- and 3-position of 3-indenecarboxylic acid. The paper starts with a brief review of the mechanisms of photolysis of 2, 1 -diazonaphthoqui nones, as have been proposed in the literature. Although the formation of ketene as an intermediate is generally accepted, there appears to be no consensus about the existence of carbene.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 222-231 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The experimental and theoretical research on vapor cloud explosions, performed at TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, is discussed within the framework of the simple model for explosion blast prediction, the Multi-Energy Method. This research is focused on the influence of obstacles and confinement present in the vapor cloud on flame acceleration and overpressure production. This led to the development of the CFD code for reactive mixtures REAGAS3D. The research is mainly performed within multi-sponsor projects and is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories from various European countries.Further, the effect of vapor cloud explosions on constructions are discussed. The 3Dcode ABAQUS is used to quantify these effects.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 207-207 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 50-55 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Intermediate phases and reactions occurring on decomposing diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium para molybdate, sodium tungstate dihydrate and ammonium meta vanadate were established by thermal analysis and X-ray examination.These salts promote fabric degradation at low temperatures but are effective at high temperatures. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate produced maximum amount of gases, absorbed the highest amount of heat and gave the highest fire retardation above 350°C.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A numerical simulation of a pressure swing adsorption process is presented for a system in which a small concentration of an adsorbable component is separated from an inert carrier. Linear equilibrium and a linear rate expression are assumed. The model equations were solved by orthogonal collocation and by finite difference methods with consistent results. The theory is shown to provide a good representation of the experimental data of Mitchell and Shendalman (1973) for the system CO2-He-silica gel.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 32 (1986), S. 1383-1388 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 32 (1986), S. 1864-1875 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a study of the possibility of using point efficiencies, measured in a small laboratory column, in the scale-up of distillation efficiencies. The conditions on a large rectangular tray were closely duplicated in a small glass Oldershaw column with one sieve tray having similar hole size and percent free area. Point efficiencies on the large rectangular sieve tray were deduced from the composition profiles and compared with the point efficiencies measured in the small column. A simple relationship between the two columns was found in terms of the froth heights and liquid holdups. The results demonstrate that the slightly lower point efficiencies measured in the Oldershaw column could be used in conjunction with a mathematical mass transfer model based on the eddy diffusion concept, to relate the point efficiencies to the tray efficiences, resulting in a conservative design provided either that allowance is made for other factors, such as nonuniform flow patterns and stagnant zones, or that these are eliminated. A wide range of composition was covered using the two systems MeOH-nPrOH and EtOH-nPrOH operating in the froth region.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 37 (1991), S. 1733-1736 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 10 (1970), S. 241-246 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The results of a study to determine the biological stability of clear, colorless, biocide-treated PVC film are presented. With the exception of a resistant control, all the PVC film samples tested contained a plasticizer susceptible to biological deterioration. Biocide-treated and control PVC film samples were subjected to biological attack in soil burial. Portions of each sample were exposed to leaching and to weathering in a weatherometer followed by soil burial to test the stability of each biocide to loss by water and weathering exposure. Of the 32 biocide preparations tested only 2, N-(trichloromethylthio) phthalimide and copper 8-quinolinolate, a known effective reference compound, were found to provide good protection for treated film in direct soil burial and in soil burial following leaching and weatherometer exposure. Natural weathering outdoors confirmed the results found with weatherometer exposed samples. The N-(trichloromethylthio) phthalimide was less effective than the reference compound in suppressing surface growth. In addition, N-(trichloromethylthio) phthalimide may not be compatible with all PVC formulations.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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