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  • 1
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mathematical models have been developed for the design of bubble column slurry reactors, wherein the solids take part in the reaction and follow the shrinking core model. The cases of liquid film control, ash diffusion control, and chemical reaction control have been analyzed. Experiments were performed in a 22.2 mm i.d. continuous cocurrent bubble column slurry reactor for the removal of pyritic sulfur by oxidation from aqueous slurries of Upper Freeport, Lower Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Pittsburgh seam coals, in the temperature range of 430-480°K at 6.8 MPa total pressure. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental results.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 1653-1661 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pulsed magnetic field gradient stimulated echo NMR measurements are performed for diffusion and flow of an aqueous phase both within a sample of packed spherical beads and within a 25% porosity Fontainebleau sandstone. The stimulated echo dependence on the gradient pulse area q is used to derive the displacement probability distributions PΔ(X) for fixed observation times Δ. The shape of PΔ(X) as a function of Δ is simulated for computer-generated porous media, and a good agreement is obtained between the experimental NMR data and the simulations.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 26 (1986), S. 717-724 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A model describing the expansion of a polyurethane (PU) foam in a closed mold is developed. An energy balance is stated, together with constitutive equations for the vaporization rate of the foaming agent and the polymerization kinetics. A numerical solution is obtained for an experimentally-characterized PU formulation. It is shown that in order to avoid premature gelling or undesirable density distributions, the wall temperature must be close to the initial one. The relative fraction of skin in the foam may be increased by decreasing the part thickness or by adding less catalyst or more blowing agent to the formulation. Factors affecting cream, rise, and process times are discussed.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The rate of loss of the antioxidant 2-tertiary-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHA) from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The rate of loss was found to follow a first-order expression. Almost all of the antioxidant was lost (〉95 percent) within 1 day at 50°C, within 3 days at 40°C, and within 7 days at 30°C. The controlling parameter for mass transfer of the antioxidant was found to be volatilization rather than diffusion.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Six epoxy networks with various structures built up from a diepoxy prepolymer, DGEBA, and three different diamines or mixtures of a monoamine and a diamine were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis in the glass transition region. The systems were designed in order to investigate the dependence of glass transition Tg on both crosslink density and network chain flexibility. The time (frequency) - temperature superposition principle (WLF equation) was used to determine the viscoelastic coefficients Cg1 and C2g which are related to some free volume characteristics on the molecular scale. Cg1, related to the free volume fraction available at Tg depends mainly on crosslink density, even though the product Cg1C2g, related to the free volume expansion coefficient, is dependent on both chain flexibility and crosslink density. Thus, viscoelastic properties determined over large temperature and frequency ranges are shown to yield more precise information on epoxy network structure than the simple analysis of glass transition temperature.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The column dynamics of simple ion-exchange processes involving acetic acid and N-acetylmethionine were studied using a strong-base anion exchange resin to reveal the complex relation between pH, concentration, equilibrium isotherms, and chromatographic separation in ion-exchange chromatography of weak electrolytes. Changing either the influent pH or the concentration, while keeping the other variable constant, led to considerable effluent concentration and pH fluctuations, respectively. This behavior is caused mainly by the uptake of undissociated acids. To describe these phenomena quantitatively, a rigorous thermodynamics-based equilibrium model for ion exchange, including Donnan potential and reaction equilibria, was incorporated into a fixed-bed model. Experimental results can be described well by this dynamic model, which is superior to conventional models due to its explicit incorporation of coions and partitioning of neutral species. It has great potential for optimizing chromatographic separations of weak electrolyte solutions.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The interfacial tensions of immiscible binary blends of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and polybutadiene (PBD) have been determined as a function of molecular weight and temperature. The technique employed for these measurements takes advantage of recent advances in the determination and analysis of pendant fluid drop profiles. The experimental data are compared to the predictions of square gradient theories and theories based on the diffusion equation approach as developed by Helfand and co-workers. Qualitative agreement is obtained with both types of theory when the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter is taken to be comprised of two terms: a temperature independent term of entropic origin; and an enthalpic term that is inversely dependent upon the temperature.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 32 (1992), S. 1630-1633 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Photosensitive polyamic acid involving substituted 3, 5-diaminobenzamide has been developed for photopatternable polyimidesiloxanes. This precursor, formulated with photosensitizers, was used to develop fine patterns by i-line UV exposure. The curing of polyamic acid was investigated by using FTIR and physical property measurement. The cured film has a high glass transition temperature depending on the siloxane content. It is stable up to 400°C and loses some of the substituted groups on heating to 500°C. The modulus, dielectric constant, and water absorption decreased with higher siloxane content.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 33 (1987), S. 619-627 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Previous published comparisons between fluidized-bed reactor models and experimental data have almost exclusively been in laboratory and pilot-plant scale equipment. This paper compares data obtained in an industrial phthalic anhydride reactor of 2. 13 m dia. using naphthalene as the feedstock with three models, the Kato and Wen bubble-assemblage model, the Kunii and Levenspiel three-phase bubbling-bed model, and Grace's two-phase bubbling-bed model. For the conditions of operation (U = 0.43 m/s, d̄p = 53 μm, H = 7.9 m, T = 636 K), all three models give similar predictions and each gives a good overall prediction of the conversion and selectivity if the reaction kinetics are based on the early study of DeMaria et al. (1961). Hydrodynamic parameters needed for the models are calculated from equations available in the literature. Grid and freeboard effects appear to play relatively minor roles in determining the overall conversion and yields for the reactor in question.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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