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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 38 (1992), S. 1577-1592 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transient temperature profiles for long rods of lossy dielectric materials with thermally-dependent dielectric properties exposed to uniform plane waves are obtained. Maxwell's equation and the heat equation are simultaneously solved using the finite element method to predict the power absorbed and the resulting temperature rise in samples of square and circular cross-section. Following the method introduced recently, we derive an exact radiation boundary condition which is independent of the rod cross-section. For a cylindrical sample, the boundary condition is imposed on the cylinder itself. For a square rod, the boundary condition is imposed on a cylinder containing the rod. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties and sample dimensions appreciably influence heating patterns. For square samples, the edges focus radiation, causing preferential heating at the edges. This effect is pronounced for larger samples. In addition, the incident wave polarization influences the heating of the rod. For waves where the electric field is polarized along the long axis of the sample (TMz polarization) the power absorbed is higher than when the electric field is perpendicular to the axis (TEz polarization). A case involving runaway heating is also investigated.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 40 (1994), S. 1268-1272 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 40 (1994), S. 1433-1439 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is generally believed that oil samples heat faster in a microwave oven than do water samples of the same mass. For sufficiently large and thich samples this conventional wisdom is indeed correct, but this trend can be far from true in smaller samples. In a commercially-made home microwave oven, we observed that with decreasing sample size the heating rate of a water sample increases much faster than that of an oil sample. At 50 g the heating rate of a water sample is several times greater than that of an oil sample. Additionally, in studies of cylindrical samples in a customized oven having a unidirectional microwave source, the heating rate of water samples smaller than 2.4 cm in radius is greater than that of oil samples and is a strongly oscillatory increasing function of decreasing sample radius. Combining Maxwell's theory of microwave penetration and the heat conduction equation, we show that this previously unreported oscillatory heating behavior results from the added power absorbed by samples due to resonant absorption of microwaves. The added power arises from standing waves produced by internally reflected microwaves. This effect is small for oil because only 3% of the microwave power is reflected at an oil-air interface. On the other hand, 64% is reflected at a water-air interface, which causes strong resonant heating. Our findings might prove to be useful for future consumer food product development or oven design.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 37 (1991), S. 313-322 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transient temperature profiles in multilayer slabs are predicted, by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations with the heat conduction equation, using Galerkin finite elements. It is assumed that the medium is homogeneous and has temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal properties. The method is illustrated with applications involving the heating of food and polymers with microwaves. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties affects the heating appreciably, as is shown by comparison with a constant property model.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 37 (1991), S. 1789-1800 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The finite element method was used to model microwave thawing of pure-water and 0.1-M NaCl cylinders. The electromagnetic field was described by Maxwell's equations with temperature-dependent dielectric properties, while the heat equation, coupled with the Stefan and Robin conditions, was used to describe the thawing process. An additional equation for the frozen volume fraction was used, when necessary, to account for the presence of a mushy region. Two microwave frequencies, 915 MHz and 2,450 MHz, were examined and the microwave radiation was assumed to be radially isotropic and normal to the surface of the cylinder. Results show that a two-phase mushy region may exist, and an additional thawing front may appear at the center of the cylinder. Salt cylinders have a higher dielectric loss than pure-water cylinders and therefore thaw more quickly. Internal resonance occurs when the wavelength of the radiation is a harmonic of the cylinder radius. Resonance increases power deposition and expedites the thawing process. The onset of resonance alters thawing times and complicates the development of heuristic rules for microwave thawing.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Brookfield, Conn. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Composites 11 (1990), S. 368-378 
    ISSN: 0272-8397
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Glass mat reinforced thermoplastics (GMTs) offer a useful combination of mechanical properties and formability. In principle, these composites may be based on any thermoplastic matrix. In practice, matrix selection is limited because of its impact on the manufacturing and compression molding processes. In this work an isothermal squeezing flow technique is used to determine the apparent biaxial extensional viscosities of polycarbonate, polybutylene terephthalate, and polypropylene-based GMTs. Experimental load-deformation data are interpreted by treating the GMTs as viscous, incompressible Newtonian fluids. Two primary effects are observed: (1) the composites appear to strain harden as they are deformed, and (2) GMT apparent biaxial extensional viscosities correlate with the high rate of deformation shear viscosities of the matrices. A mechanism that explains the second result is proposed.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 37 (1991), S. 569-580 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Deep knowledge about process behaviors plays an important role in the diagnosis of chemical processes. Cause-and-effect reasoning using deep knowledge is useful especially for interacting malfunctions. This work explores the integration of deep knowledge into task-specific, knowledge-based architectures for resolving interacting multiple malfunctions and presents a novel methodology called diagnostically focused simulation (DFS). Invoked in an auxiliary manner, DFS uses deep knowledge and performs qualitative simulation in a highly constrained manner. The close integration with other problem solvers is an evolutionary approach to using qualitative simulation in diagnosis and manages a normally computationally-explosive procedure. Diagnostic results from the compiled problem solver provide a situation-specific assessment of the chemical process, identify possible malfunction scenarios, and focus on appropriate levels of process detail. DFS effectively demonstrates a balance between run-time simulation and compiled problem solving in diagnosis.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 38 (1992), S. 563-572 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new approach to gross error detection provides unbiased estimates and 100(1-α)% simultaneous confidence intervals of process variables when biased process measurements and process leaks exist. Presented in this article are estimation equations for process variables, as well as equations that help identify biased measurements and process leaks. These equations include the power function for a global test, and two types of α-level component tests and their power functions. Important strengths and weaknesses of this approach are compared to those of the serial compensation strategy, in particular, by varying the significance level (α), the variance-covariance matrix (Σ), the size of measurement bias (δ), the number of biased variables, and the sample size (N). Accuracy of δ estimation and performance in detecting the presence of process leaks (γ) are also evaluated and compared. The proposed approach has unique features that can provide a basis for improving the reconciliation of variables in process operations.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 40 (1994), S. 925-934 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new adsorption model is developed for small molecules in zeolites whose form is based on features revealed by molecular simulation. Adsorption is assumed to occur onto a 3-D polyhedral lattice, and both the energy and entropy of the lattice sites are accounted for using a statistical mechanics approach. Energetic interactions are described by an Ising model with both 2- and multibody nearest-neighbor in-teractions. Entropic interactions are included by an adsorption site volume term which accounts for the loss of traslational freedom associated with lattice crowding.The model is applied to a system of small molecules (xenon, methane) adsorbed in idealized zeolite NaA, where adsorption has been shown by computer simulation to occur on finite, cuboctahedral lattices (Van Tassel et al., 1992). The model quantitavely predicts the simulated isotherm over the entire pressure range. Comparison is made with a Langmuir model and a van der Waals gas model which, although valid at low pressures, fail at high pressures due to overestimation of translational entropy and inaccurate portrayal of sorbate-sorbate interaction energy.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 40 (1994), S. 570-575 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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