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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of removal of the liver has been noted in fishes, frogs, and turtles. As in the higher vertebrates, removal of the liver produced a fall in blood sugar and a loss in muscular tone. The lower vertebrates failed to respond to intravenous injections of glucose, as do the birds and mammals. They also fail to respond to maltose or levulose. The liver maintained the blood-sugar level in the lower vertebrates, which is necessary for the maintenance of life.The mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism in the lower vertebrates may be different from that in the higher ones, in that glucose, when injected intravenously, apparently exercises a progressively less beneficial effect on the characteristic hypoglycemic condition which follows the removal of the liver of mammals and cold-blooded vertebrates.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 18 (1996), S. 1009-1016 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human life expectancy has increased dramatically through improvements in public health, housing, nutrition and general living standards. Lifespan is now limited chiefly by intrinsic senescence and its associated frailty and diseases. Understanding the biological basis of the ageing process is a major scientific challenge that will require integration of molecular, cellular, genetic and physiological approaches. This article reviews progress that has been made to date, particularly with regard to the genetic contribution to senescence and longevity, and assesses the scale of the task that remains.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to measure cytoplasmic elemental content (in mmoles/kg dry weight) of the basal layer of cells of the vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats. Measurements were made both before estradiol injection and at 2 hr, 17 hr, and 24 hr after estradiol administration. Mitotic figures first appeared in the basal cell layer at 24 hr. During the course of the study significant time-dependent differences were seen in the content of all elements measured. A pattern of change in cytoplasmic content was seen for Na, P, S, and Cl; all of which decrease significantly by 17 hr and then return to approximately the nonstimulated concentration by 24 hr. On the other hand K, and to a lesser extent Mg, show an early and continued increase in cytoplasmic content after estradiol injection. Thus, the marked increase in the intracytoplasmic content of K in the estradiol treated cells suggests that K, or the ratio of Na to K, may be directly or indirectly involved in growth stimulation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lack of estrogen receptor (ER) and presence of vimentin (VIM) associate with poor prognosis in human breast cancer. We have explored the relationships between ER, VIM, and invasiveness in human breast cancer cell lines. In the matrigel outgrowth assay, ER+/VIM- (MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1), and ER-/VIM- (MDA-MB-468, SK-Br-3) cell lines were uninvasive, while ER-/VIM+ (BT549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-436, Hs578T) lines formed invasive, penetrating colonies. Similarly, ER-/VIM+ cell lines were significantly more invasive than either the ER+/VIM- or ER-/VIM- cell lines in the Boyden chamber chemoinvasion assay. Invasive activity in nude mice was only seen with ER-/VIM+ cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-436. Hs578T cells (ER-/VIM +) showed hematogenous dissemination to the lungs in one of five mice, but lacked local invasion. The ER-/VIM+ MCF-7ADR subline was significantly more active than the MCF-7 cells in vitro, but resembled the wild-type MCF-7 parent in in vivo activity. Data from these cell lines suggest that human breast cancer progression results first in the loss of ER, and subsequently in VIM acquisition, the latter being associated with increased metastatic potential through enhanced invasiveness. The MCF-7ADR data provide evidence that this transition can occur in human breast cancer cells. Vimentin expression may provide useful insights into mechanisms of invasion and/or breast cancer cell progression.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Plasmin (Pm) is a broad action serine protease implicated in numerous physiological functions. In bone, Pm may play a role in growth, resorption, metastasis, and the activation of growth factors. The various components of the Pm system are known to bind and function on the cell surface of various cell types, but no pertinent data are available describing membrane-bound Pm or its zymogen, plasminogen (Pg), in either normal or neoplastic bone cells. We report here that Pg binds to the surface of the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and is activated to Pm by endogenous urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). These conclusions are based on experiments utilizing radiolabeled compounds and a cell surface proteolytic assay measuring amidolytic activity of Pm. 125I-Pg binding to cells was time dependent, saturable, reversible, and specific. Binding was characterized by a relatively low affinity (Kd ∼0.9 μM) and a high capacity (∼7.5 x 106 sites/cell). The binding of 125I-Pg was associated with lysine binding sites of the plasminogen molecule. Activation of 125I-Pg to 125I-Pm occurred on the cell surface and was dependent upon cell bound uPA, as determined by inhibitory antibodies. Binding of Pg to MG-63 monolayers represented ∼80% bound specifically to the cell surface and the remainder to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Either co-incubation with uPA or pre-incubation with Pm resulted in increased 125I-Pg binding to osteosarcoma cells. Cell surface Pm proteolytic activity was confirmed by an amidolytic chromogenic assay. Both Pm and Pg bound to cells with Pg being activated by endogenous uPA. Plasmin activated on the cell surface was partially protected from inhibition by α2-antiPm (requiring Pm lysine binding site interaction) but inhibited by aprotinin, (interacting directly with the Pm catalytic site). Resistance of cell bound Pm to α2-antiPm inhibition suggests that cell surface proteolysis can occur in the presence of a soluble Pm inhibitor known to exist in the extracellular space. Based on these results, we speculate that the various bone physiological processes implicating Pm may occur at or near the bone cell surface. © 1994 wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Despite the genetic interruption of the Leloir pathway both galactosemic patients and galactosemic fibroblasts can convert galactose to CO2 and TCA precipitable products, although at less than the normal rate. These observations stimulated investigations into the identity of the alternative metabolic routes which allow for galactose metabolism in the absence of in vitro galactose-1-P-uridyl transferase. Four lines of galactosemic cells, each without detectable gal-transferase, produced 14CO2 from [1-14C]-galactose (0.094 μmoles in 20 cc of medium) at approximately 39% ± 16% the rate of transferase positive cells over a 48-hour period. However, galactokinase deficient fibroblasts produced 14CO2 and TCA precipitable products from [1-14C] -galactose or [U-14C] -galactose at only 3% to 9% the rate of normal fibroblasts. Therefore it seems likely that galtransferase deficient fibroblasts must first synthesize galactose-1-P for further metabolism of galactose.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 22 (1992), S. 81-91 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Electron probe energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was performed on freeze-dried tissue sections. The dry weight concentration of elements (mmole/kg dry weight) was measured in the cytoplasm of several cell types from adult mice and rats. This comparative investigation showed: (1) That the energy dispersive X-ray spectrum of element concentration from the cytoplasm of a specific cell type allows one to distinguish this specific cell type from other cell types with considerable accuracy. (2) That there is a relationship between the concentration of the various elements and the ultrastructural features of the cytoplasmic regions being analyzed. For example, areas rich in ribosomes are also rich in P, K and Mg. (3) These data support the idea that K is directly involved in the control of protein synthesis. The catalog of element concentrations in the cytoplasm of 13 cell types from both mice and rats should be of value to others who seek to answer various questions about these cell types.
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