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  • 1
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultured fibroblasts derived from human keloid tissue are presented as a possible model system for studying the genetic regulation of cell growth. Histamine is shown to have a marked effect on the growth of cultured fibroblasts. A small increase in growth rate is seen during the log phase of the culture cycle and a 50% increase in cell number is observed during the plateau phase. Differences in the extent of growth stimulation are observed between strains isolated from different individuals. While most strains showed approximately 50% stimulation, a few were not stimulated and some strains gave a 100% or greater increase in cell number due to histamine. This phenotypic difference in extent of growth stimulation in response to histamine cannot be attributed to the gene or genes for keloid formation. However, elevated levels of histamine in vivo may be a contributing factor to the abnormal cell growth observed in this disorder. The extent of growth stimulation due to histamine decreases with repeated subculturing.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultured fibroblasts isolated from normal and keloid tissue do not differ in their growth characteristics or in the rate of collagen synthesis under routine culture conditions. The addition of hydrocortisone to the culture media results in significant differences in both growth and collagen synthesis between these cell types. Collagen syntehsis is inhibited 60% in normal cultures by hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml) and the population size at which density-dependent growth inhibition is achieved is increased. Keloid-derived fibroblasts grow to a lower maximum density in the presence of hydrocortisone, while their rate of collagen syntehsis is not significantly reduced. The rate of non-collagen protein synthesis is increased significantly by hydrocortisone in both cell types.Comparison of normal and keloid-derived cultures obtained from a single individual suggests that the keloid phenotype with respect to both growth and collagen synthesis is restricted to the fibroblasts isolated from the keloid nodule.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of hydrocortisone and ascorbic acid on collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis, and on growth were examined in fibroblasts derived from normal human dermis. When the medium was supplemented with 0.28 mM ascorbic acid, the apparent rate of collagen production increased 2--3 fold over the culture cycle. Ascorbic acid also caused a small increase in the apparent rate of synthesis of noncollagen protein and an elevation in growth rate and maximum cell density. Growth was not required for the increase in collagen production since addition of ascorbate to confluent cultures induced a similar increase. Hydrocortisone (1.5 μM) blocked the ascorbate-related increase in collagen production during growth and in confluent cultures. The hormone simultaneously increased the apparent rate of noncollagen protein production and maximum cell density, suggesting that the effect on collagen synthesis was specific. Inhibition of collagen production by hydrocortisone was observed only in the presence of ascorbate, while the increase in growth and noncollagen protein production occurred in the presence and absence of the vitamin.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Mouse ; Sheep ; Oocyte ; Maturation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The application of a quantitative videographic technique has provided an opportunity to compare the quantitative volumetric expansion of cultured oocyte complexes (COCs) to quantitative changes in gap junction down-regulation and hyaluronic acid synthesis and to investigate the effects of physiological agents that influence these processes. Results of these experiments support the idea that the down-regulation of cumulus gap junctions is required for the initial phase of cumulus cell disaggregation and confirm earlier reports that hyaluronic acid synthesis plays a major role in additional expansion of the cumulus. These studies also provide evidence that the degree of expansion observed in culture lacking substrates of hyaluronic synthesis is significantly attentuated when compared with expansion occurring in vivo and that the failure of cultured complexes to expand maximally can be overcome by the addition of substrates of hyaluronic acid synthesis to the culture medium.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: exocytosis ; rat tumor mast cells ; cytoskeleton ; A23187 ; stress fibres ; tubulin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells undergo morphological and cytoskeletal changes during antigen-induced secretion of allergic mediators. The exact role these changes play in the process of secretion is unclear. Using confocal microscopy we now show that PMA + A23187 causes extensive F-actin rearrangements during secretion of [3H] 5-HT. We also describe for the first time the association of myosin with F-actin during this secretory process. In unstimulated cells, myosin and F-actin are concentrated at the plasma membrane with no evidence of stress fibres. Upon addition of PMA or A23187, both F-actin and myosin are rearranged into membrane ruffles and discrete aggregations (foci), followed by the formation of parallel stress fibres located on the ventral membrane. This is in contrast to reports in other cell types in which PMA has been described as causing the disruption of F-actin stress fibres. The time course of secretion coincides with the formation of the foci and ruffles whilst the stress fibres form after the majority of secretion has occurred. These changes are accompanied by a 40% decrease in cell height and a two-fold increase in cell spreading and they occur in the absence of extracellular calcium but are inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor, Bisindolylmaleimide, which also inhibits secretion. The formation of myosin-decorated stress fibres, foci, and ruffles is not sufficient to cause secretion, as PMA alone induces these changes without any secretion. The relevance of actin and myosin rearrangements for the regulation of secretion is discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Embedment media ; Coagulant and noncoagulant fixatives ; Intracellular surfaces ; Scanning electron microscopy ; Thick sections ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Conventional plant histological specimens fixed in formalin-acetic acid-alcohol, chromic acid-acetic acid-formaldehyde, or glutaraldehyde-osmium and embedded in either paraffin or plastic are examined as possible rapid methods for providing an alternative image of cellular structure by using scanning electron microscopy. Using the mitotic figures of actively growing onion root tips as a study specimen, the organization of the nucleus and spindle apparatus is reasonably well preserved as compared with isolated mitotic spindles and studies of mitosis in endosperm tissue. Relief of internal structure in this technique is obtained through the coagulant nature of the fixative. Used judiciously, this technique can reveal aspects of the three-dimensional nature of internal tissue structure that may otherwise be difficult to discern.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Virus ; Electron microscopy methods ; Replicas ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The sequence of events leading to the development of freeze-fracture replication is described. Subsequent developments discussed include complementary replicas, replica interpretation with stereo micrograph and reversal negatives, replica reinforcement, and control of resistance evaporation.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Extracellular matrix ; Ovulation ; Fertilization ; Oocyte aging ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Gonadotropin-stimulated expansion of the mouse cumulus oocyte complex (COC) in vitro, measured with a quantitative videographic method, is comparable to that observed to occur in vivo when medium is supplemented with porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 2.5 mM glucosamine or optimal concentrations of glutamine and glucose. In the absence of glucosamine, the volumetric expansion of COCs in vitro is never more than 25% of that occurring in its presence. The addition of 6-diazo-5-oxo-1-norleucine (DON), an inhibitor of glucosamine synthesis to medium supplemented with glutamine and glucose, completely inhibits cumulus expansion in vitro. This system was utilized to examine the relationship between cumulus expansion and fertilization rates, and the maintenance of fertilizability in culture. Successful fertilization (as determined by development to the 2-cell stage) was correlated with the quantity and quality of the expanded cumulus mass, and conversely, the spontaneous loss or mechanical removal of the cumulus was correlated with a loss of fertilizability following additional incubation in culture medium. In addition, the i.p. injection of DON inhibited cumulus expansion within the intact follicle and suppressed ovulation. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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