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  • 1
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: platelet ; platelet adhesion ; cytoskeleton ; high voltage electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Adhesion of platelets in vitro resulted in rapid polymerization of the amorphous cytoplasmic ground substance into an organized cytoskeletal superstructure. This cytoskeleton, characterized through the use of whole-mount and stereo (3-D), high-voltage microscopy in conjunction with morphometrics and cytochemistry, comprised four major size classes of filaments organized in distinctive zones. The central matrix, or granulomere, at the center of the cell mass, was an ill-defined meshwork of 80-100-Å filaments which enshrouded granules, dense bodies, and elements of the dense tubular system as identified through peroxidase cytochemistry. Demarcasting this central matrix was a trabecular zone containing 30-50, 80-100, and 150-170 Å filaments in an open and rigid-appearing lattice. Circumscribing the trabecular zone and extending to the margins of the hyalomere was the third region, the peripheral web, in which 70-Å filaments were arranged in a tight honeycomb lattice. This organizational pattern was retained in cytoskeletons prepared by Triton x-100 extraction of the adherent cells, and was observed in basally located cells of aggregates which formed subsequent to adhesion. Our observations are consistent with biochemical studies of cytoskeletons prepared from suspended platelets and suggest a contractile protein composition for the superstructure during adhesion.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 21 (1992), S. 281-292 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ATPase ; CTPase ; minus-end-directed microtubule motility ; cytoplasmic dynein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extracts of unfertilized sea urchin eggs contain at least two isoforms of cytoplasmic dynein. One exhibits a weak affinity for microtubules and is primarily soluble. The other isoform, HMr-3, binds to microtubules in an ATP-sensitive manner, but is immunologically distinct from the soluble egg dynein (Porter et al.: Journal of Biological Chemistry 263:6759-6771, 1988). We have now further distinguished these egg dynein isoforms based on differences in NTPase activity. HMr-3 copurifies with NTPase activity, but it hydrolyzes CTP at 10 times the rate of ATP. The soluble egg dynein is similar to flagellar dynein in its nucleotide specificity; its MgCTPase activity is ca. 60% of its MgATPase activity. Non-ionic detergents and salt activate the MgATPase activities of both enzymes relative to their MgCTPase activities, but this effect is more pronounced for the soluble egg dynein than for HMr-3. Sucrose gradient-purified HMr-3 promotes an ATP-sensitive microtubule bundling, as seen with darkfield optics. We have also isolated a 20 S microtubule translocating activity by sucrose gradient fractionation of egg extracts, followed by microtubule affinity and ATP release. This 20 S fraction, which contains the HMr-3 isoform, induces a microtubule gliding activity that is distinct from kinesin. Our observations suggest that soluble dynein resembles axonemal dynein, but that HMr-3 is related to the dynein-like enzymes isolated from a variety of cell types and may represent the cytoplasmic dynein of sea urchin eggs.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Endothelium ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; Lectins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: A number of recently developed localization techniques are beginning to be applied in the study of endothelial cells and their structural components. In this article we will review a number of these cytochemical approaches as well as their advantages and disadvantages and their applications. The methods will be presented for processing tissues for either L.R. White embedding or semi-thin and thin frozen sections followed by subsequent lectin and immunolabeling for fluorescence and electron microscopic examination. These techniques are easily applied in the localization of perfused exogenous proteins and of endogenous endothelial-associated proteins. The results that can be obtained from such studies are presented and discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 149 (1976), S. 33-51 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mature annelid cuticle contains orthogonally oriented collagen in a matrix capped superficially by a dense epicuticle with external corpuscles. The underlying epidermis is a simple columnar epithelium with two major cell types, mucous-secreting cells which secrete through channels in the cuticle to the exterior of the worm, and “supportive” cells which presumably produce and increase the cuticle by secreting into it.The structures of supportive cells, previously interpreted as specialized for establishing interfibrillar collagen order, are revealed by glutaraldehyde fixation as common cellular components without the qualities deemed useful to align collagen. Cell processes which penetrate and sometimes pass completely through the cuticle are not stable, not in geometric order, and lack cilia-like structure. Cilia, unlike the ubiquitous cellular processes, are highly restricted to regions of the epidermis with specialized functions. Cellular control, or other control, of collagen fibrillogenesis remains unestablished.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 149 (1976), S. 53-71 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Appearance of collagen fibrils in the cuticle was seen by electron microscopy to be preceded by fonnation of a finely filamentous matrix material. At first, the fine filaments of the matrix are unorganized. However, signs of orthogonal ordering soon appear in the most superficial portion of the cuticle, and subsequently appear more basally and closer to the underlying epidermis. Meanwhile, fibrils of different staining properties and identifiable as collagen begin to be deposited in the superficial portion of the cuticle, the same region which first showed organized fine filaments. Then, like the fine filaments before them, the collagen fibrils polymerize more basally. Collagen appears to polymerize on the preformed skeleton of fine filaments as though the fine filaments caused the collagen to assemble. Neither the polymerization nor ordering of collagen fibrils seems to require direct cellular intervention but occur first in that portion of the cuticle which is furthest away from the underlying epidermis. The fine filaments may be self ordering, extracellular macromolecules which in turn determine the polymerization of collagen fibrils.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 94 (1954), S. 221-281 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: autoantigens ; spermatogenesis ; rabbit ; antigens ; membrane proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Autoantigens that appear during spermatogenesis in the rabbit were identified using immunoadsorbent chromatography and SDS-PAGE. To identify cell-surface proteins, samples of freshly isolated, staged cells were labeled by the lactoperoxidase or Iodo-Gen iodination procedure and run on SDS-PAGE. Autoradiograms of the stained, dried gels were prepared. By correlating the band patterns in the SDS gels of immunocolumn and surface-labeled samples with the band patterns in the autoradiograms, it was possible to show when the autoantigenic proteins appeared on the cell surface. To further support the identification of membrane autoantigens, surface-labeled, staged cell samples were lysed in Triton X-100 and immunoprecipitated with antitestis cell autoantisera.Three types of autoantigens have been identified: (1) late class antigens that are present only on late spermatids and epididymal spermatozoa, but are intracellular in early stages, (2) early class antigens which occur on the surface of pachytene spermatocytes and are present throughout subsequent stages of development, and (3) early class, transient antigens, which appear on spermatogenic cells but are not present on epididymal spermatozoa.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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