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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of intracellular pH (pHin) in the regulation of cell growth in both normal and transformed cells is a topic of considerable controversy. In an effort to study this relationship NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected with the gene for the yeast H+-ATPase, constitutively elevating their pHin. The resulting cell line, RN1a, has a transformed phenotype: The cells are serum independent for growth, clone in soft agar, and form tumors in nude mice. In the present study, we further characterize this system in order to understand how transfection with this proton pump leads to serum-independent growth, using defined media to investigate the effects of specific growth factors on the transfected and parental NIH 3T3 cells. While both cell lines show similar growth increases in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and epidermal growth factor (EGF), they respond differently to insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and PDGF-AA. RN1a cells exhibit increased growth at nanomolar concentrations of insulin but the parental cells had only a relatively minor response to insulin at 10 μM. Both cell lines showed some response to IGF-I in the nanomolar range but the response of RN1a cells was much larger. Differences in insulin and IGF-I receptor number alone could not explain these results. The two cell lines also respond differently to PDGF-AA. RN1a cells are relatively insensitive to stimulation by PDGF-AA and express fewer PDGF α receptors as shown by Northern blots and receptor-binding studies. We propose a unifying hypothesis in which the H+-ATPase activates a downstream element in the PDGF-AA signal transduction pathway that complements insulin and IGF-I signals, while leading to downregulation of the PDGF α receptor. © 1994 wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: NIH-3T3 cells transfected with yeast H+-ATPases (RN1A cells) are tumorigenic (Perona and Serrano, 1988, Nature, 334: 438). We have previously shown that RN1a cells maintain a chronically high intracellular pH (pHin) under physiological conditions. We have alsoshown that RN1a cells are serum-independent for growth, maintain a higher intracellular Ca2+(in), and glycolyze more rapidly than their non-transformed counterparts (Gillies et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1990, 87: 7414; Gillies et al., Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 1992, 2: 159). The present study was aimed to understand the interrelationships between glycolysis, pHin, and [Ca2+]in in RN1a cells and their non-transformed counterparts, NIH-3T3 cells. Our data show that the higher rate of glycolysis observed in RN1a cell is due to the presence of low affinity glucose transporters. Consequently, the higher rate of glycolysis is exacerbated at high glucose concentration in RN1a cells. Moreover, the maximal velocity (Vmax) for glucose utilization is up to sixfold higher in RN1a cells than in the NIH-3T3 cells, suggesting that the number of glucose transporters is higher in RN1a than NIH-3T3 cells. Glucose addition to NIH-3T3 cells results in modest decreases in both pHin and [Ca2+]in. In contrast, RN1a cells respond to glucose with a large decrease in pHin, followed by a large decrease in [Ca2+]in. The decrease in [Ca2+]in observed upon glucose addition is likely due to activation of Ca2+-ATPase by glycolysis, since the Ca2+ decrease is abolished by the Ca2+ ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid. Glucose addition to ATP-depleted cells results in a decrease in [Ca2+]in, suggesting that ATP furnished by glycolysis is utilized by this pump. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: BrdU incorporation ; Cultured cells DNA replication ; Electron microscopy ; EM immunocytochemistry ; Immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: In the present study, we have optimized an immunocytochemical ultrastructural approach for in situ localization of newly synthesized DNA in unsynchronized as well as in synchronized human HeLa cells and in exponentially growing mouse P815 cells, which had incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during short pulses varying from 1 to 20 minues. The incorporated BrdU was detected in hydrolyzed ultrathin cryosections or Lowicryl sections by means of a monoclonal antibody, revealed by secondary colloidal gold-labeled probes. The results demonstrate our ability to study, with high resolution and reproducibility, DNA replication during consecutive periods of the S-phase, which is monitored by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. In addition, this approach allows one to perform a concomitant mapping of replicated DNA and various enzymes of the replisome.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Acetone ; Methanol ; Diethyl ether ; Freezing artifact ; Chemical fixation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Pollen grains of Lolium perenne (rye grass) were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by rapid freezing in liquid propane, substitution in acetone, methanol or diethyl ether, and embedment in the acrylic resin London Resin gold. These were compared to pollen chemically fixed (CF) in aldehyde/osmium tetroxide and embedded in the epoxy resin Quetol 651. Ultrastructural preservation was superior in freeze-substituted (FS) pollen, particularly with the use of acetone or methanol. Optimally preserved FS pollen displayed a homogeneous aspect of the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, and smooth, uninterrupted contour or organelles. A striking difference was also seen in the preservation of inclusions in the intine. Varied forms and sizes of intine inclusions were evident in FS pollen but these were not discernible in the CF image. The FS scheme studied here presents enormous potential for both ultrastructural and immunolabelling studies in rye grass pollen. Problems discussed include artifacts associated with each of the substitution solvents used, and a gradient of freezing damage observed within the pollen grain.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of cells and the organization of axons were studied in Golgi-Colonnier and toluidine blue stained preparations from the medial cerebral cortex of the lizard Lacerta pityusensis. In the medial cortex, six strata were distinguished between the superficial glial membrane and the ependyma. Strata I and II formed the outer plexiform layer, stratum III formed the cellular layer, and strata IV go VI the inner plexiform layer. The outer plexiform layer contained smooth bipolar neurons; their dendrites were oriented anteroposteriorly and their axons were directed towards the posterior zone of the brain. Five neuronal types were observed in the cellular layer. The spinous pyramidal neurons had well-developed apical dendrites and poorly developed basal ones. Their axons entered the inner plexiform layer and gave off collaterals oriented anteroposteriorly. The small, sparsely spinous pyramidal neurons had poorly developed dendrites and their axons entered the inner plexiform layer. The spinous bitufted neurons had well-developed apical and basal dendritic tufts. Their axons gave off collaterals that reached the outer and inner plexiform layers of both the dorsomedial and dorsal cortices. The sparsely spinous horizontal neurons had dendrites restricted to the outer plexiform layer. Their axons entered the inner plexiform layer. The sparsely spinous, multipolar neurons had their soma close to stratum IV and their axons entered the outer plexiform layer. In stratum V of the inner plexiform layer were large, spiny polymorphic neurons; they had dendrites with long spines, and their axons reached the cellular layer. On the basis of these results, we have subdivided the medial cortex into two subregions: the superficial region, which contains the neurons of the cellular layer and their dendritic domains, and the deep region, strata V and VI, which contains the large, spiny polymorphic neurons. The neurons in the medial cortex of these lizards resembles those in the area dentata of mammals. On this basis, the superficial region may be compared to the dentate gyrus and the deep region to the hilar region of the hippocampus of mammals.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoblasts ; insulin-like growth factor-I ; calcium signaling ; fura 2 ; digital imaging ; receptor crosslinking ; Northern analysis ; Scatchard analysis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of the IGF-II/cation independent mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptor in the transduction of cellular effects evoked by IGF-II has been extensively debated in the literature. Many reports suggest that IGF-II transduces its effects through the IGF-I receptor, while others show that IGF-II utilizes the type II receptor to affect cellular activity. This study (1) verifies the presence of the IGF-II/M6P receptor in rat calvarial osteoblasts, and (2) evaluates the ability of the receptor to initiate intracellular single. Using conventional receptor binding assays, it was found that osteoblasts bind IGF-II with high affinity. Scatchard analyses indicated that there are 5.08 × 104 IGF-II/M6P receptor per osteoblast with a Kd near (2.0 nM). The receptor protein was further identified by cross-linking with 125I-IGF-II. Northern analysis was used to identify an mRNA transcript for the IGF-II/M6P receptor protein. To examine if the IGF-II/M6P receptor can initiate second messenger signals, the ability of IGF-II to evoke Ca2+ transients was evaluated. Osteoblasts pretreated with IGF-I did not lose their ability to respond to IGF-II. Further, a polyclonal antibody against the rat IGF-II/M6P receptor (R-II-PAB1) (1) was able to evoke its own Ca2+ response, and (2) was able to block the generation of Ca2+ transients caused by IGF-II. The data in this report show that the osteoblastic Ca2+ response to IGF-II appears to be caused by an intracellular release of Ca2+ which is mediated by the IGF-II/M6P receptor making it possible to envision how the receptor may be an important modulator of osteoblast mediated osteogenesis. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Two types of choanocyte-like cells have been found in the digestive tract of the starfish. Type I choanocytes are in the lining epithelium of all organs of the digestive system. These are narrow, columnar cells strongly anchored basally and expanded apically into a protuberance projecting into the lumen. A prominent flagellum surrounded by microvilli projects from the center of this protuberance. Apical cytoplasm contains numerous mitochondria, secondary lysosomes, and multivesicular bodies. A distinctive characteristic of these cells is a filament bundle that traverses the length of the cell from its region of attachment on the rootlet of the flagellar basal body to its terminus on the basal plasma membrane. Between the attenuated basal ends of type I cells are the nerve fibers of an intraepithelial nerve plexus. Thickness of the plexus is correlated with the quantity of type I cells in the epithelium.Type II choanocytes are in the cuboidal coelomic epithelium that forms the outer layer of digestive tract organs. These cells are smaller than those of type I, and they have an apical collar surmounted by a ring of 13 microvilli. Within the collar is a cup-shaped depression with a central flagellum. Coated vesicles, secondary lysosomes, and phagocytic infoldings are observed in and near the collar cytoplasm. Filament bundles similar to those in type I choanocytes are also observed in coelomic epithelial cells that are sufficiently tall. Injection of peroxidase into the stomach and ferritin into the coelom results in phagocytic uptake of these macromolecules by type I and type II choanocytes, respectively.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The rostral end of the forebrain was classically defined on the basis of descriptive data. Different assumptions on the mode of closure of the rostral neuropore caused three different theories of the rostral end of the forebrain to be formulated (His 1893a; von Kupffer, '06; Johnston, '09). Some recent descriptive and experimental data have put these theories into question.A piece of black nylon thread was inserted through the rostral neuropore of chick embryos and was fixed to its ventral lip. These operations were done at all intermediate stages during the process of closure of the rostral neuropore. The embryos were sacrificed at a later stage, by which time the neuropore had disappeared.In the cleared specimens the threads always lay at the same site, namely the upper border of lamina terminalis, irrespective of the stage at which the marker was inserted. These results stand against His's conception ((1893a, b) of a sutura terminalis and support the single mechanism of sutura dorsalis during closure of the rostral neuropore. The marking data therefore imply that the topologic rostral end of the forebrain lies at the upper limit of lamina terminalis, as proposed by von Kupffer, '06).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This report documents the development of the autopodium of the common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleo) using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Three main periods were distinguished during the morphogenesis of this structure. In the first period (stages 33-35 of chameleon development) the autopodium is paddle-shaped with a prominent apical ectodermal ridge (AER) along the distal margin. During this period the AER has structural features similar to other reptilian and avian vertebrates except for the scarcity or absence of gap junctions. The second period of autopodium morphogenesis (stage 36 of chameleon development) is characterized by the formation of a central cleft which divides this structure into two digital segments. In the forelimb the autopodial cleft occupies the space between digits 3 and 4. In the hindlimb the cleft occupies the space between digits 2 and 3. Mesenchymal cell death constitutes a constant feature during cleft formation. In addition to cell death during this process, we have observed that the AER flattens out in the zone of cleft formation while in the digital portions of the autopodium it takes on a polystratified appearance. In the last period of autopodial morphogenesis (stage 37 of chameleon development) digits become free by means of interdigital mesenchymal cell death.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of five epithelial cellular types is described. (1) Absorptive-storing cells possess a striated border and accumulate lipids and glycogen. They also contain an apical multivesicular complex and numerous membrane-bound PAS-positive granules of unknown significance. (2) Zymogenic cells contain numerous, large secretory granules. These cells also possess microvilli and accumulate lipid droplets. (3) Current-producing cells contain bundles of thick and thin myofilaments and extend from the basal lamina to the lumen. (4) Mucous cells display the characteristic features of such secretory cells. (5) In addition to these four cellular types, already observed under the light microscope by other authors, endocrine cells have also been identified by both light and electron microscope. They contain variable amounts of secretory granules of diverse sizes and electron densities. Immunocytochemical studies reveal the presence of cells immunoreactive to somatostatin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide. Intraepithelial nerve fibers in contact with endocrine cells are also present. As far as we know, this appears to be the first description of enteroendocrine cells in the phylum Echinodermata.
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