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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytological changes following transection of the proximal root of the trigeminal ganglion in adult rats were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Radices were transected about 3-5 mm from the ganglia and animals were killed from 1 to 60 days after the operation. Light microscopically, it was found that all Nissl granules became uniformly stained and evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm within 3 days. Three types of cell alteration involving Nissl granules occurred within 3 to 12 days after the operation: (1) chromatolysis, (2) dark staining of the cytoplasm accompanied by an increase of Nissl granules, and (3) faint staining of the cytoplasm accompanied by dispersion of Nissl granules. Electron microscopically, the chromatolysis pattern was characterized by peripheral concentration of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (gER) and ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Neurons of the darkstaining type showed an increased number of polysomal complexes throughout the cytoplasm, whereas those of the faint-staining type had diffusely dispersed cisternae of the gER which were shortened and bore reduced numbers of attached ribosomes. Perinuclear localization of profiles of Golgi complexes disappeared temporarily 1-3 days after the operation, but the normal perinuclear pattern appeared to return after 1 week. Enzyme histochemistry of acid phosphatase activity revealed an increase in the number of very fine reaction products in the cytoplasm up to 14 days following the operation. Cells recovered the normal pattern of Nissl staining by 48 days. Myelin figures, which are rarely observed in normal ganglia, were still observed in dense lysosomal bodies after 30 days. Nuclear size in affected neurons steadily increased up to about 2 weeks postoperation but returned to normal by 48 days.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 175 (1983), S. 101-113 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The neurons of the trigeminal ganglia of the rat and chicken were characterized by means of light microscopic, electron microscopic, and histochemical methods. Light microscopy disclosed four types of neurons, based on the characteristics of Nissl granules: (1) large neurons with diffusely distributed and very fine granules, (2) neurons containing coarse and sparsely distributed Nissl granules, (3) neurons containing dense Nissl granules of varying size, and (4) small neurons with granules concentrated peripherally. Electron microscopy allowed further definition of these four types of neurons by the length and arrangement of flattened cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum (gER) and the number of neurofilaments. Type 1 cells were largest, with a mean nuclear area of 139.8 ± 28.3 μm2. Type 4 cells were smallest, with a mean nuclear area of 74.6 ± 20.9 μm2. The mean nuclear areas of type 2 and 3 cells were intermediate to those of the type 1 and 4 cells. Type 3 and 4 neurons lacked neurofilaments. Four forms of Golgi apparatus were found: (1) large bent grains forming a network throughout the soma, (2) dispersed fine granular deposits, (3) fine or small granules, and (4) coarse bent deposits arranged confluently in the perinuclear zone. In some rat neurons, the concentration of acid phosphatase reaction products suggested a high enzymatic activity, whereas the chicken ganglion cells showed no such concentration. These findings are discussed and compared with the classifications of previous studies.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We compared the ability of human leukemia cell lines of various origins to grow in glutamine-deficient media. The growth of B lymphoblastoid cell lines, including promyelocytic HL-60, is highly dependent on glutamine, whereas T-cell lines are able to proliferate in glutamine-free media. Such glutamine dependency has a good inverse correlation with the activity of glutamine synthetase. Moreover, glutamine synthetase can be induced in glutamine-deficient media, especially in glutamine-independent cells. In HL-60 cells, glutamine deprivation results in the decrease of both ATP and dATP levels. The addition of adenine to the culture medium abolishes these changes without restoring cell growth, indicating that the effects of glutamine deprivation on cell growth cannot be fully explained by the perturbation of adenine nucleotide pools.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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