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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (22)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: nematodes ; muscle structure ; mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A search for new mutants with altered body-wall muscle cell structure has been undertaken in the nematode C elegans. One-hundred seventeen mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate or ultraviolet light, enrichment by a motility-requiring test, and screening by polarized light microscopy; 102 of these mutants were in ten previously established genes, whereas 15 mutants permitted the identification of seven new complementation groups in C elegans. Two of the new genes map on linkage group I (unc-94 and unc-95) and four genes are sex linked (unc-96, unc-97, unc-98, and unc-99). One complementation group (unc-100) could not be mapped because of the special characteristics of its cohort mutants. Representative mutants of the mapped genes were examined by polarized light and electron microscopy. All of the mutants exhibit disruptions of the normal A and I band organization of thick and thin filaments. Several of the mutants produce collections of thin filament-like structures. In one of these cases, HE177 demonstrated collections of somewhat wider, intermediate-sized filaments as well, and the HE195 mutant produces paracrystalline aggregates of thin filaments amidst looser arrangements of similar structures. The mutants in newly identified genes, as well as the new mutants in previously established genetic loci, have promise as tools in the study of myofibrillar assembly and function. Among the 22 complementation groups associated with body-wall structure in C elegans, it is likely that some genes code for regulatory and morphogenetic functions in addition to the well-studied structural, contractile, and calcium-associated proteins in muscle.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: erythroid spectrin ; non-erythroid spectrin ; Z-line ; membrane ; neuromuscular junction ; developmental changes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We describe multiple human cardiac and skeletal muscle spectrin isoforms. Cardiac muscle expresses five erythroid α,β spectrin-reactive isoforms with estimated MR's of 280, 274, 270, 255, and 246 kD, respectively At least one nonerythroid α-spectrin of MR 284 kD is expressed in heart. While skeletal muscle shares the 280, 270, and 246 kD erythroid spectrins, it expresses an immunologically distinct 284 kD nonerythroid α-spectrin isoform. The 255 kD erythroid β-spectrin isoform is specific for cardiac tissue. By immunocytochemistry, both erythroid β- and nonerythroid α-spectrins are localized to costameres, the plasma membrane, and the neuromuscular junctional region.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The surface ultrastructure of the gill arches of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, adapted to seawater or freshwater, was found to be similar to that reported for other euryhaline teleosts. Two rows of gill filaments (about 42 filaments per row) extended posterolaterally, and two rows of gill rakers (about 10 rakers per row) extended anteromedially from each arch. Leaf-like respiratory lamellae protruded along both sides of each filament, from its base to its apex. The distributions, sizes, and numbers of various surface cells and structures were also determined. All surfaces were covered by a mosaic of pavement cells, which measured about 7 × 4 μm and exhibited concentrically arranged surface ridges. Taste buds were especially prominent on the rakers and the pharyngeal surfaces of the first and second gill arches, but were often replaced by horny spines on the third and fourth gill arches. Apical crypts of chloride cells occurred mostly on the surfaces of the gill filaments adjacent to the afferent artery of the filament. In seawater adapted killifish, crypts resembled narrow, deep holes along the borders of adjacent pavement cells, had openings of about 2 μm2, and occurred at a frequency of about 1 per 70 μ2 of surface area. In freshwater fish, the crypts usually had larger openings (about 10 μ2), occurred less frequently (1 per 123 μ2), and exhibited many cellular projections in their interiors. Changes in crypt morphology may be related to the ion transport function of chloride cells.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: hypersensitivity ; granulomas ; skin ; athymic nude mice ; biomedical analysis ; angiotensin-converting enzyme ; eosinophil chemotactic factor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), other proteinases, and eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF-G) are known to be elevated in hepatic hypersensitivity granulomas of thymus intact (nu/+) mice after Schistosoma mansoni infection. The enzyme activities also increase, but to a lesser degree in hepatic granulomas of athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, and ECF-G is not detectable. In this study isolated hepatic granulomas from nu/+ mice were grafted into the skin of uninfected nu/nu mice, and changes in those cellular functions were determined to examine whether the newly formed granulomas by recipient nu/nu cells acquire the functional activities as well as the histological appearance of nu/+ granulomas. ACE and ECF-G rapidly disappeared from grafted sites during the first 5 days, corresponding to loss of nu/+ cells from the graft. Reduction in activities of arylsulfatases, lysozyme, and acid phosphatase also occurred, but to a lesser extent. Recovery of ACE and ECF-G activities to the levels seen in nu/+ hepatic granulomas was observed by 14 days after grafting when nu/nu cells had accumulated in the grafts and formed new granulomas. Other enzymes increased to approximately half the levels seen in grafted donor granulomas. Circulating eosinophilia also increased. The findings indicate that nu/nu cells that accumulated in the skin grafts not only morphologically mimicked nu/+ type granulomas but also demonstrated nu/+ levels of cellular function. Analysis of skin granulomas developing in nu/+ mice after grafting of nu/+ hepatic granulomas showed the similar histology and enzymatic changes, whereas the skin sites inoculated with purified schistosome eggs alone caused neither significant histological changes nor elevation of ACE activity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: prolyl endopeptidase ; granulomatous tissue reaction ; angiotensin system ; hydrolysis of angiotensin I and II ; purification and characterization ; immunohistochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Activity of prolyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26) which hydrolyses the Pro7-Phe8 bond in angiotensin II has been found to elevate in experimentally produced granulomatous inflammation in liver and skin. We purified the enzyme 1,536-fold by 6 steps from murine hepatic granulomas. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight of 79 kDa and physiocochemical properties equivalent to those previously reported for prolyl endopeptidase purified from other sources. By HPLC analysis, the cleavage of Phe8-Leu10 and Phe8 from angiotensin I and II, respectively, was detected and quantified. Monospecific IgG was prepared from serum of rabbits injected with purified enzyme. Concentration of the enzyme was immunohistochemically detected in cells which form granulomatous organization, but not in inflammatory cells surrounding the foci. The antibody, however, cross reacted with the enzyme in adjacent liver cells and weakly stained their cytoplasm. The findings indicate that this enzyme, in addition to angiotensin converting enzyme, may serve as a useful biochemical marker for granulomatous tissue reactions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 50 (1992), S. 78-82 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: adenocarcinoma ; prostate ; prostatectomy ; PSA ; TUR ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The incidence of stage A (incidental) adenocarcinoma of the prostate in transurethral resection (TUR) specimens is approximately 16%. This paper discusses the criteria for differentiating state A1 versus stage A2 tumor, based on tumor volume and grade. Both the short-term (4 year) and long-term (8-10 year) natural history of untreated stage A1 prostate cancer are examined. Options to follow patients expectantly are presented. These include digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Specific problems relating to analyzing transrectal ultrasounds in patients who have had a prior TUR are addressed. Also, the unique aspects of transrectal ultrasound for stage A1 disease as it relates to the location of the lesion are expanded upon. The third option in the management of stage A1 disease is to monitor serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Areas covered include the sensitivity and specificity of PSA in general, and, in specific, serum PSA levels following TUR for stage A1 disease as a predictor of residual tumor. New data on a small group of patients who underwent delayed radical prostatectomy following diagnosis of stage A1 disease, where PSA data was available, are presented. The rationale for following patients with stage A1 disease by monitoring their serum PSA levels is supported by data from a group of men with normally sized prostates, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or cancer where longitudinal serum PSA levels were available. Finally, the option of radical prostatectomy for stage A1 disease is put forth. Data include a study of a large group of radical prostatectomy specimens performed for stage A1 disease. This includes the incidence of substantial tumor in this group and our ability to predict substantial tumor based on information obtained by TUR. In conclusion, a summary of the management of stage A1 disease in older versus younger men is presented. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase ; rat epidermis ; reconstitution with P-450 1A1 ; immunohisto-chemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (P-450 red) transfers reducing equivalents from NADPH to cytochrome P-450 (P-450) in the monooxygenase system. Detergent solubilized proteins from the membrane fraction of neonatal rat epidermis were purified by 2′,5′-ADP-agarose affinity column chromatography. The purified protein showed an apparent homogeneity on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and molecular weight was estimated to be 78 kDa. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity increased by 95-fold in the purified enzyme. Epidermal P-450 red in vitro reconstituted benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity in a dose dependent manner with P-450 purified from either rat liver or epidermis. Western blot analysis demonstrated that epidermal P-450 red immunologically cross reacts to liver P-450 red. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the enzyme was predominantly localized in the epidermis. The intensity of immunohistochemical staining of rat skin sections and tissue distribution did not change in the skin treated with β-naphtoflavone, which results in a substantial increase in P-450 1A1 activity. Quantitative assessment of P-450 red in treated and untreated epidermis also showed no change. These findings indicate that constitutive P-450 red, fully capable of supporting P-450, exists in rat epidermis, and can function in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: granulomatous inflammation ; murine elastase ; aldehyde-fuchsin-stained fibers ; granuloma ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Elastases have been reported to be involved in various types of tissue injury. In this study we detected hydrolytic activities for [3H]-elastin and Suc-Ala-Ala-Ala-pNA (SLAPN) in hepatic granulomas which became elevated in parallel with enlargement of the granulomas and disappearance of aldehyde-fuchsin-stained filaments in the lesions of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The elastase was partially purified by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. This enzyme has a molecular weight of 20-25k and hydrolyzed denatured collagen (azocoll), Glu-Pro-Val-pNA, SLAPN, and [3H]-elastin. Optimal pH was 7-8.5. It is a serine proteinase and distinct in its inhibitor profile from murine peritoneal macrophage elastase, which has been reported by others. Digestion of elastic fibers in vessel walls and fine fibrils in newly developed granulomas by the granuloma elastase was histochemically identified with aldehyde-fuchsin stain. These results indicate that a serine proteinease functions as a major elastase in granulomatous tisssue remodeling and may account for the disappearance of elastic fibers and other elements of the matrix in fully developed granulomas.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear bodies ; promyelocytic leukemia protein ; herpes simplex virus ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The promyelocytic leukemia protien fused to the retinoic acid receptor in t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia, the primary biliary cirrhosis autoantigen, Sp100, as well as the incompletely charterized protien NDP55, are co-localized in specific immunohistochemically defined nuclear domains (ND10), which are potential equyivalents of ultrastructurally defined nuclear bodies. We investigated whether the distribution of these proteins depends on environmental conditions and whether ND10 correlate with nuclear bodies. Certain nuclear bodies and ND10 react in a similar bodies, which herpes simplex virus infection or heat shock modify both. Redistribution of ND10-associated proteins to hundreds of small sites throughout the chromatin was inducible by stress in the form of heat shock and exposure to Cd++ ions. The change of distribution was rapid and independent of proteins synthesis, and thus not part of the classical heat shock response. The very rapid redistribution of these proteins after heat shock, together with the development of ND10 upon interferon actication, raises the possibility that ND10 represent storage sites of certain matrix proteins readily accessible throughout the chromatin in response to stress or other effectors that induce global nuclear changes. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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