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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (271)
  • 1980-1984  (251)
  • 1935-1939  (20)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoplasmic transport ; Saltation ; microtubules ; keratocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We report the first direct demonstration that the cytoplasmic transport of organelles and vesicles (collectively called particles) takes place along microtubules. Living keratocytes from the corneal stroma of the frog, Rana pipiens, were observed with Allen video-enhanced constrast, differential interference constrast (AVEC-DIC) microscopy [Allen et al, 1981]. In sufficiently thin regions of these cells a network of linear elements was visible. When particles were observed in motion, they always moved along these linear elements. The linear elements remained intact and in focus on the microscope when lysed in a cell lysis solution that stabilized microtubules. Preparations were then fixed in formaldehyde, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), incubated with rabbit antitubulin, washed with PBS, stained with rhodamine-conjugated goat antirabbit, and washed with PBS. The extracted cells continued to remain in place and in focus on the microscope throughout these procedures. The same cells were then observed using epifluorescence optics and a silicon-intensified target (SIT) video camera. A network of fluorescent linear elements was seen to correspond in number, form, and position to the linear elements seen in the live AVEC-DIC image. Taken together, the AVEC-DIC and fluorescence microscopy observations prove that the linear elements along which particles move are microtubules (MTLEs). The observed particle speeds, pause times, and distances moved varied widely, even for the same particle on the same microtubule. Particles were also observed to switch from one microtubule to another as they were transported. The polarity of the microtubules did not seem to affect the particle direction, since particles were observed to move in both directions on the same MTLE. When not in motion these particles behaved as if anchored to the microtubules since they showed negligible Brownian motion. Finally, it was observed that an elongate particle could move onto two intersecting linear elements such that it was deformed into an inverted “Y” shape. This indicates that there may be more than a single site of attachment between the force generator and the particle.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; myosin light chains ; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; calcium ; cytoplasmic streaming ; actomyosin ATPase regulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Myosin from the slime mold Physarum polycephalum contains three sizes of polypeptides: a heavy chain and two light chains, LC-1 and LC-2. Using a simple qualitative test for calcium binding by comparing electrophoretic migration of the polypeptides in sodium dodecy1 sulfate (SDS) acrylamide gels in the presence and absence of calcium, we have found that Physarum myosin light chain LC-2 migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 16,900 daltons in the presence of the metal ion chelator ethylene glycol bis (B-aminoethyl ether) N,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, if calcium chloride is added to the sample prior to electrophoresis, the apparent molecular weight decreases to 16,100. Lanthanide and cadmium ions, but not magnesium, can substitute for calcium. Because the ionic radii of Ca2+, La3+, and Cd2+ are almost identical, we conclude that Physarum myosin LC-2 possesses a very size-specific binding site for calcium. Physarum myosin LC-1 and the heavy chain give no evidence for binding calcium by this test. Since cytoplasmic streaming in the plasmodium of Physarum requires calcium, our evidence indicates that the calcium-binding property of Physarum myosin LC-2 may be important in regulating the production of force by actomyosin in the ectoplasm. Unexpectedly, the myosin light chain in Physarum capable of binding calcium, LC-2, is the essential light chain, while LC-1 is a member of the regulatory class of myosin light chains [V. T. Nachmias, personal communication]. Until now, essential myosin light chains have not been shown to have high affinity divalent cation binding sites. This means a new version of the myosin-based model for actomyosin regulation by calcium may be required to explain cytoplasmic movement in Physarum, and perhaps in other motile systems involving cytoplasmic myosins as well.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 159-162 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 172 (1982), S. 123-138 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The late embryonic and postembryonic genesis of the bursa cloacae (Fabricii) of struthioniforms and other birds is described and discussed. The bursa of ostrich and emu is a wall organ of the caudal cloacal chamber. The bursa of rhea is, like the bursa of Gallus, a cranial appendix of the proctodeum. Lobuli bursales of struthioniforms are composed of a peripheral pars lymphoepithelialis (PLE) and a central pars lymphoreticularis (PLR). By contrast, lobuli bursales of Gallus are composed of a peripheral PLR and a central PLE. The fine structure of the bursa of struthioniforms is described. Other than in Gallus, the apical cell association of the PLE of struthioniforms shows secretory granules. This study thus far does not answer in detail the question of how the imprinting mechanism of the B-lymphocytes operates. It is assumed that they are imprinted in the PLE. Postcapillary venules in the PLR are responsible for the transport of B-lymphocytes. Hormonal bursectomies have been made to get information about the involution of the bursa of struthioniforms. In these species, involution means a gradual metaplasia while in Gallus it means a complete degeneration of the bursa.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study describes intercellular bridges in the ovaries of neonatal gerbils. Electron microscopy has revealed the presence of true intercellular bridges, connecting oogonia or oocytes, in ovaries of newborn gerbils. The cytoplasm of the intercellular channels is similar to that of the connected cells, with mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes present. Lysosomes are also occasionally present in the intercellular bridges and they may be involved in early waves of oocyte atresia. An electrondense substance, 350-500 Å thick, is located immediately beneath the unit membrane of the intercellular bridges. Accumulation of electron-dense material increases the thickness of the walls of the intercellular bridges, supporting and maintaining the patency of the channels. It is suggested that the intercellular channels probably allow the interchange of nutrients, organelles, and possibly regulatory materials as well.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ; photosynthetic membrane synthesis ; cell cycle ; freeze fracture ; macromolecule distribution ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The steady-state biosynthesis of the photosynthetic membrane (ICM) of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides has been reviewed. At moderate light intensities, 500 ft-c, preexisting ICM serves as the insertion matrix for newly synthesized membrane components. Whereas the bulk of the membrane protein, protein-pigment complexes, and pigments are inserted into preexisting ICM throughout the cell cycle, phospholipid is transferred from outside the ICM to the ICM only at the time of cell division. Because the site of cellular phospholipid synthesis is the cytoplasmic membrane, these results infer that despite the physical continuity of cytoplasmic membrane and ICM, there must exist between these membranous domains a “barrier” to the free diffusion of cellular phospholipid. The cyclical alternation in protein to phospholipid ratio of the ICM infers major structural and functional alternations, such as changes in the protein to lipid ratio of the membrane, specific density of the membrane, lipid structure within the membrane, and the rate of cyclic electron flow. When biochemical studies are correlated with detailed electron microscopic investigations we can further conclude that the number of photosynthetic units within the plane of the membrane can vary by nearly a factor of two over the course of the cell cycle. The average physical size of the photosynthetic units is constant for a given light intensity but inversely proportional to light intensity. The distribution of photosynthetic unit size classes within the membrane can be interpreted as suggesting that the “core” of the photosynthetic unit (reaction center plus fixed antenna complex) is inserted into the membrane coordinately as a structural entity. The variable antenna complex is, on the other hand, inserted independent of the “core” and randomly associates with both old and new core complexes. Finally, we conclude that there is substantial substructure to the distribution of photosynthetic units within the ICM, ie, they are highly ordered and exist in a defined spatial orientation to one another.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 169 (1981), S. 21-28 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Standard histological and SEM techniques have been used to examine the pair of statocyst organs located in the telson of the isopod, Cyathara polita. Each organ is formed as an invagination of the dorsal cuticle of the telson. The invagination narrows to form a stalk between the statocyst and dorsal surface. A canal courses longitudinally through this stalk and forms a continuous channel between the lumen of the cyst and the external environment. On the luminal floor of each statocyst, there are three pits; each correlates with a nodule protruding from the ventro-medial wall. From each pit, a single, bifurcating hair projects dorsally to contact the single concretion within the statocyst lumen. No other static organs have been found in this animal. Thus, maintenance of equilibrium in this species appears to be under the control of but six hairs, three in each statocyst. Innervation of each statocyst is provided by a branch of a nerve which connects anteriorly with the last abdominal ganglion.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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