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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (1,207)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (251)
  • 1980-1984  (1,458)
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the poor solvent acetone/ethanol the viscosity of a 3% solution of 12.6% N pyro nitrocellulose is found to be related to the geometric mean of the number average and weight average molecular weights. The fractional increase in the viscosity of such a solution on the addition of lead ß-resorcylate is a function only of number average molecular weight. Once calibration has been made against osmotic pressure measurements and intrinsic viscosity, both number and weight average may be measured rapidly with an accuracy which is no less than that of the osmotic pressure and intrinsic viscosity measurements themselves.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deterioration of polyolefin, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide films under soil burial conditions extending up to 32 months has been investigated. Based on changes in their elongation at break, the films can be ranked in order of increasing sensitivity to degradation: Polyester ≃ polypropylene 〈 low-density polyethylene ≃ high-density polyethylene 〈 nylon 6.6. The degraded nylon 6.6 and polyethylene films were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by wet analysis for hydroperoxides. From a comparison with the well-known oxidative sensitivity of nylon 6.6 in oxygenated water at slightly elevated temperatures, the rapid deterioration of nylon 6.6 film during soil burial was also concluded to be an oxidative process. The somewhat smaller, but significant, embrittlement of the polyethylenes studied could not be simply explained by thermal oxidation (with only trace oxidation products detectable) or microbiological attack (deterioration being unaffected by surface activation to enhance wettability).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Optical-absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectra for solutions, suspensions, and precipitates of poly(1,6-di-p-toluene sulfonoxy-2,4-hexadiyne) in and from nitrobenzene, acetone, and chloroform are presented. These are interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two forms of the polymer chain; a quasicrystalline form with properties close to those of single crystal polymer and a chain-extended form occurring in solution and colloidal particles, with an absorption energy of about 2.5 eV (20,000 cm-1). No evidence is found for the presence of very short polymer chains in partially polymerized monomer at low conversion. The relationship of these results to those for deformed single crystals is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Mean free paths for inelastic scattering (λ) of low energy electrons in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been determined by measuring Al Kα excited C 1s and Si 2s photoelectron signal intensities as a function of ellipsometrically determined thicknesses of PMMA overlayers on silicon substrates. The λ values obtained are 29 ± 4 Å for 1196 eV electrons and 33 ± 5 Å for 1328 eV electrons. These data are necessary for the quantitative analysis of the surface region of PMMA and similar polymers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnitude of the λ values determined indicates that XPS measurements can provide chemical information about the surface region of polymers, such as PMMA, in the depth range of ∼6 to 100 Å. The results of this study are compared and discussed with respect to λ values determined for other organic compounds.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Fire and Materials 7 (1983), S. 79-88 
    ISSN: 0308-0501
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: There are two major fire processes, an understanding of which is essential for effective fire safety design: (1) the conditions under which a combustible material may become involved in flaming combustion, and (2) the rate at which such a material, once involved, will provide an output of heat, smoke, toxic gases, etc., which can endanger people and property. The first process may be regarded as covering both ignition and spread of fire on materials; its complement is the way in which fire may become extinguished. It is necessary for such processes to bring in a characteristic of the basic combustion reaction which, directly or indirectly, expresses the reactivity of the combustion process. Thus pilot ignition is usually associated with an approximate surface fuel temperature. More basically, it is associated with a critical flow rate of volatiles and a critical heat loss from the flame, the latter being influenced by ambient oxygen and temperatures conditions as well as heat lost and gained by the fuel itself. The most important factor governing the production of dangerous product is the rate at which volatiles first (fuel controlled fires) and later air (air controlled fires) are fed into the flames. The reactivity is of less importance, although it may be one of the factors which control combustion efficiency. In general, the more efficient is the combustion the more heat is produced, but the less smoke and toxic gases are produced. Some of the main advances in the above areas are reviewed in this paper.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thermal degradation behavior of poly(1,3-phenylene isophthalamide) and poly(chloro-2,4-phenylene isophthalamide) was investigated with the aid of some appropriate model compounds. The pyrolysis products of these materials were identified by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The residual chars were characterized by IR spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to study the effect of end-group concentration on the degradation characteristics of the two polyamides. Kinetic parameters that describe the thermal degradation of the polyamides were also evaluated by TGA. The results of this investigation suggest that the thermal decomposition of these aromatic polyamides involves homolytic as well as hydrolytic cleavages of the amide units.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Numerous hypotheses exist to explain observed blood-materials interactions. It is the purpose of this article to test two popular hypotheses, namely, the minimum interfacial free energy hypothesis and the optimum polar/apolar ratio hypothesis. Methacrylate polymers and copolymers were characterized using the captive bubble underwater contact angle method; bulk water content was determined by gravimetric methods; streaming potential measurements were made; and surface roughness and possible particulate contamination were evaluated by reflected light microscopy. In vitro blood tests include whole blood clotting time measurements on polymer-coated tubes; centrifugal force platelet adhesion on polymer-coated coverslips; and a measure of the partial thromboplastin time, Russell's viper venom time (Stypven time), and the prothrombin time of native whole blood exposed to polymer-coated microscope slides. Results suggest that platelet adhesion correlates in the opposite direction of whole blood clotting time and partial thromboplastin time, emphasizing the need for a multiparameter approach to blood-materials testing. Based on these tests the minimum interfacial free energy hypothesis is not supported. In fact, the data suggest the opposite to be true. It is apparent that platelet adhesion can be a misleading indicator of blood compatibility. Neither hypotheses can explain the apparent conflict between the platelet adhesion data and the coagulation time data.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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