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  • MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES  (2)
  • Aerospace Medicine  (1)
  • Cation transport  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Manufacturing engineering research at Marshall Space Flight Center
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: RES. ACHIEVEMENTS REV., VOL. 2 1968 (SEE N69-18059 07-34)
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Fatty acids ; Liposomes ; Cation transport ; Membrane transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The rate of change of internal pH and transmembrane potential has been monitored in liposomes following the external addition of various cation salts. Oleic acid increases the transmembrane movement of H+ following the imposition of a K+ gradient. An initial fast change in internal pH is seen followed by a slower rate of alkalinization. High concentrations of the fatty acid enhance the rate comparable to that seen in the presence of nigericin in contrast to the effect of FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-(tri-fluoromethoxy)phenyl hydrazone) which saturates at an intermediate value. The ability of nonesterified fatty acids to catalyze the movement of cations across the liposome membrane increases with the degree of unsaturation and decreases with increasing chain length. Li and Na salts cause a similar initial fast pH change but have less effect on the subsequent slower rate. Similarly, the main effect of divalent cation salts is on the initial fast change. The membrane potential can enhance or inhibit cation transport depending on its polarity with respect to the cation gradient. It is concluded that nonesterified fatty acids have the capability to complex with, and transport, a variety of cations across phospholipid bilayers. However, they do not act simply as proton/cation exchangers analogous to nigericin nor as protonophores analogous to FCCP. The full cycle of ionophoric action involves a combination of both functions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: Packaging and preservation of space vehicle hardware
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: NASA-CR-87419
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but 〈140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-24585 , UCLA''s Department of Medicine Research Conference; 20 Sep. 2011; Los Angeles, CA; United States
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