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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Fatty acids ; Liposomes ; Cation transport ; Membrane transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The rate of change of internal pH and transmembrane potential has been monitored in liposomes following the external addition of various cation salts. Oleic acid increases the transmembrane movement of H+ following the imposition of a K+ gradient. An initial fast change in internal pH is seen followed by a slower rate of alkalinization. High concentrations of the fatty acid enhance the rate comparable to that seen in the presence of nigericin in contrast to the effect of FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-(tri-fluoromethoxy)phenyl hydrazone) which saturates at an intermediate value. The ability of nonesterified fatty acids to catalyze the movement of cations across the liposome membrane increases with the degree of unsaturation and decreases with increasing chain length. Li and Na salts cause a similar initial fast pH change but have less effect on the subsequent slower rate. Similarly, the main effect of divalent cation salts is on the initial fast change. The membrane potential can enhance or inhibit cation transport depending on its polarity with respect to the cation gradient. It is concluded that nonesterified fatty acids have the capability to complex with, and transport, a variety of cations across phospholipid bilayers. However, they do not act simply as proton/cation exchangers analogous to nigericin nor as protonophores analogous to FCCP. The full cycle of ionophoric action involves a combination of both functions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A device is reported for regulating the pneumatic pressure in a ventilated space suit relative to the pressure imposed on the suit when being worn by a person underwater to simulate space environment for testing and experimentation. A box unit located on the chest area of the suit comprises connections for suit air supply and return lines and carries a regulator valve that stabilizes the air pressure differential between the inside and outside of the suit. The valve and suit pressure is controlled by the suit occupant and the valve includes a mechanism for quickly dumping the suit pressure in case of emergency. Pressure monitoring and relief devices are also included in the box unit.
    Format: application/pdf
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