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  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Precipitation and corrosion behaviour of unstabilized and stabilized 18 10 CrNi steels after short term sensibilizing annealingThe authors have studied the precipitation behaviour of the steels X5 CrNi 18 9, X10CrNiTi 18 9 and X 10CrNiNb 18 9 after solution and sensibilization annealing, and the intercrystalline corrosion behaviour in the Straußtest. On the basis of the results obtained it was possible to determine the and carbonitrides and to define the grain segregation ranges. In the case of the unstabilized materials the behaviour is a function of the formation of chromium depleted zones. However, it is not absolute value of the depletion at the carbid/austenite interphase which controls corrosion, but the depletion in an adjacent zone of measurable thickness. Beyond that the Huey test allows the corrosion susceptibility to be determined in those regions where no continuous chromium depleted zone exists. In the case of stabilized steels the corrosion behaviour depends in addition from carbonitride precipitation, since these compounds are heavily attacked by the boiling nitride acid.
    Notes: Die Verfasser untersuchten das Ausscheidungsverhalten der Stähle X 5 CrNi 18 9, X 10CrNiTi 18 9 und X 10CrNiNb 18 9 nach Lösungs- und Sensibilisierungsglühen sowie das Verhalten gegen interkristalline Korrosion im Strauß-Versuch. Aufgrund der Ergebnisse konnte die Art der Ausscheidungen bestimmt werden (Karbid M23C6 und Karbonitride) und auch die Kornzerfallsbereiche konnten definiert werden. Im Falle des nichtstabilisierten Materials ist das Verhalten abhängig von der Bildung von chromveramten Zonen; dabei ist jedoch nicht die absolute Höhe der Verarmung an der Grenzfläche Kabid/Austenit ausschlaggebend, sondern vielmehr die Verarmung in einer Zone meßbarer Dicke. Im Huey-Versuch läßt sich außerdem die Korrosionsanfälligkeit in den Zonen ermitteln, wo keine zusammenhängende Chromverarmungszone vorliegt. Im Falle der stabilisierten Stähle ist das Korrosionsverhalten außerdem abhängig von der Karbonitridausscheidung, da diese Ausscheidungen von der siedenden Salpetersäure stark angegriffen werden.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations into the electrolytic-potentiostatic etching of stainless steels in 10 n NaOH, using a coulometerCurrent density/potential characteristics can only provide qualitative indications concerning the phenomena encountered with potentiostatic etching in 10 n NaOH. The process is best carried out in the trans-passive zone. Identification is based, not on the selective dissolution of certain standard components, but on the interference colours which can be observed as a result of the formation of cover layers of different thickness. The charge density/time characteristics also permit quantitative indications of the different phases. Current density/time curves permit a clarification of the mechanism govering the formation of cover layers. A ferritic steel (28 pC Cr) and a NiCr alloy (45 pC Cr) were found to follow a cubic law of growth, whilst CrNi steel 18-8 is initially governed by an approximately logarithmic law, followed by a zone extending over several hours where the growth begins to follow a parabolic law.
    Notes: Stromdichte-Potential-Kurven ermöglichen nur qualitative Aussagen über die Vorgänge beim potentiostatischen Ätzen in 10 n NaOH. Am günstigsten ist Ätzen im Transpassivbereich. Die Identifizierung erfolgt dabei nicht durch selektive Auflösung bestimmter Gefügebestandteile, sondern aufgrund der Interferenzfarben, die infolge der Bildung unterschiedlich starker Deckschichten zu beobachten sind. Die Ladungsdichte-Zeit-Kurven ermöglichen auch Aussagen über die Mengen der einzelnen Phasen. Stromdichte-Zeit-Kurven ermöglichen eine Aufklärung des Deckschichtbildungsmechanismus. Für einen ferritischen Stahl (28% Cr) und eine NiCr-Legierung mit 45% Cr gilt ein kubisches Wachstumsgesetz, während für CrNi-Stahl 18-8 zunächst ein annähernd logarithmisches Gesetz gilt, an das sich ein mehrstündiger Bereich anschließt, in dem übergang zu einem parabolischen Schichtwachstum erfolgt.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The relationship of the intercrystalline corrosion of a non-stabilised 18/10-chromium-nickel steel with some test solutions and with the potential in boiling 2 n H2SO4Specimens of an austenitic 18/20 nickelchromium steel with about 0.06 pC C, quenched at 1300° C and annealed for different periods of time at 550 or 675° C were potentiostatically subjected to the attack of boiling 2n-H2SO4, of a nitric / hydrofluoric acid pickle at room temperature, and of boiling acids in accordance with the Strauss, Huey and Streicher test. Subsequently, the corrosion rates were determined by weighing and the corrosion examined by visual inspection and microscopically.In the active and passive condition grain boundary corrosion is only encountered after sensitizing annealing. In this connection, the potential merely determines the intensity of the grain boundary attack, but not its occurrence as such. The influence of the potential is more marked at higher than at lower sensitizing annealing temperatures. The test results can easily be interpreted with the aid of the chrome reduction theory.In the transition zone to the transpassive condition, and in the latter, an intercrystalline corrosion attack occurs which depends but little on the sensitizing annealing, and which also occurs with solution-annealed specimens. It is also in this zone of the potential that the non-potentiostatic tests according to Huey and Streicher are carried out.The test results show a specific reaction to chrome reduction of the corrosion attack in the active and passive condition, i.e. the attack in the hydrofluoric/nitric acid pickle and in the Strauss solution. In contrast, the Huey and Streicher tests additionally bring in other properties which, in the main, have an influence on the excess potential of the cathodic part-reaction. These testing agents cannot be regarded as specific criteria for the grain decomposition proneness.
    Notes: Proben eines austenitischen 18/10-Chrom-Nickel-Stahles mit etwa 0,06% C, die von 1300° C abgeschreckt und verschieden lange bei 550 und 675° C geglüht worden waren, wurden potentiostatisch dem Angriff siedender 2n-H2SO4, einer Salpetersäure-Flußsäure-Beize bei Raumtemperatur sowie dem Angriff siedender Säuren entsprechend dem Strauß, Huey- und Streicher-Test unterworfen. Anschließend werden die Korrosionsgeschwindigkeiten durch Wägung bestimmt und der Korrosionsangriff visuell und mikroskopisch im Schliffbild untersucht.Im Aktiv- und Passivzustand tritt Korngrenzenkorrosion nur nach einer Sensibilisierungsglühbehandlung auf. Das Potential bestimmt hierbei nur die Intensität des Korngrenzenangriffs und nicht das Auftreten desselben an sich. Der Einfluß des Potentials ist bei hohen Sensibilisierungslühtemperaturen stärker ausgeprägt, als bei niedrigen Temperaturen. Die Versuchsergebnisse lassen sich mit Hilfe der Chromverarmungstheorie zwanglos deuten.Im Übergangsbereich zum Transpassivzustand erfolgt ein interkristalliner Angriff, der nur wenig von der Sensibilisierungsglühbehandlung abhängt und auch bei lösungsgeglühten Proben auftritt. In diesem Potentialbereich erfolgen auch die nicht potentiostatischen Prüfungen nach Huey und Streicher.Die Versuchsergebnisse zeigen, daß der Angriff im Aktiv- und Passivzustand, also der Angriff in der Flußsäure-Salpeter- Beize und in der Straußschen Lösung, spezifisch auf Chromverarmung ansprechen. Beim Huey- und Streicher-Test werden dagegen zusätzlich noch Eigenschaften, die im wesentlichen die Überspannung der kathodischen Teilreaktion beeinflussen, miterfaßt. Diese Prüfmittel können nicht als spezifisch für die Kornzerfallsanfälligkeit angesehen werden.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: The economic potential of ethnic and cultural diversity is often underestimated. This paper summarizes a number of recent studies which show that 'soft' factors such as attitudes, perceptions and identities - and in particular ethnic identities - significantly affect economic outcomes. More specifically, the studies analyze the process of cultural integration over migrant generations as well as the process of job search and labor market reintegration of the unemployed. The economy can thus gain productivity and efficiency by recognizing and incorporating such multi-ethnic factors. Cultural assimilation that goes along with a loss of migrants' own cultural heritage does not appear to be the sole or dominant strategy of an economically successful integration. To tap the full potential of ethnic and cultural diversity, an increased cultural and ethnic open-mindedness of the native population is desirable.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderer ; multikulturelle Gesellschaft ; ethnische Gruppe ; Minderheiten ; nationale Identität ; Berufserfolg ; Arbeitslose ; berufliche Reintegration ; interkulturelle Faktoren ; kulturelle Faktoren ; berufliche Integration ; Inländer ; interkulturelle Kompetenz ; Schlüsselqualifikation ; soziale Qualifikation ; soziale Integration ; kulturelle Identität ; kulturelles Kapital ; Assimilation ; Segregation ; Marginalität ; ökonomische Faktoren
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Das ökonomische Potenzial ethnischer und kultureller Vielfalt wird häufig verkannt. Die Ergebnisse neuerer Studien, die in diesem Beitrag zusammengefasst werden, zeigen jedoch, dass sich weiche Faktoren wie etwa Einstellungen, Wahrnehmungen und Identitäten, hier insbesondere ethnische Identitäten, wesentlich auf ökonomische Ergebnisse auswirken können. Dies geht sowohl aus Analysen des Prozesses kultureller Integration in einer generationenübergreifenden Perspektive als auch aus Untersuchungen der Arbeitsplatzsuche und der Wiedereingliederung von Arbeitslosen in den Arbeitsmarkt hervor. Eine Volkswirtschaft kann sich durch eine geeignete Beachtung und Einbeziehung multi-ethnischer Faktoren ökonomisch besser stellen. Kulturelle und ethnische Assimilation von Zuwanderern ist deshalb keine alleinige oder dominante Strategie der ökonomisch erfolgreichen Einbindung in die Aufnahmegesellschaft. Neben einer besseren Aktivierung der Integrationspotenziale bei Personen mit Migrationshintergrund ist auch eine kulturelle oder ethnische Öffnung der Einheimischen sinnvoll.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkterfolg ; ethnische Vielfalt ; ethnische Identität ; Migration ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Multikulturelle Gesellschaft ; Kulturelle Identität ; Soziale Integration ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper analyses the determinants of Chinese direct investment (DI) in the European Union (EU). Evidence is based on panel Poisson models drawing on two investment monitors for individual projects. We distinguish between the numbers of greenfield investments (GIs) and mergers and acquisitions (M&As). The findings indicate that market size and trade relationships with China are the primary factors driving Chinese DI in the EU. In contrast, more business-friendly institutions do not foster DI. Chinese enterprises might be risk averse, in other words prefer to choose their activities in regions with less competitive markets. The striking difference between GIs and M&As is related to unit labour costs. Higher costs make the host country less attractive for the establishment of new firms, but do not affect the involvement in existing firms. The sectoral dispersion of Chinese DI in the EU has not changed much since the global financial crisis of 2008. Most relevant shifts have occurred in research and development (R&D), where low-income EU countries have gained in attractiveness.
    Keywords: F21 ; E22 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; China FDI ; Greenfield investments ; mergers and acquisitions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The major event of the 9/11 terror attacks is likely to have induced an increase in anti-immigrant and anti-foreigner sentiments, not only among US residents but also beyond US borders. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and exploiting exogenous variation in interview timing throughout 2001, I find that the terror attacks in the US caused an immediate shift of around 40 percent of one within standard deviation to more negative attitudes toward immigration and resulted in a considerable decrease in concerns over xenophobic hostility among the German population. Furthermore, in exploiting within-individual variation this quasi-experiment provides evidence on the role of education inmoderating the negative terrorism shock.
    Keywords: F22 ; I21 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; attitudes ; education ; September 11 ; terrorism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: This report examines China's strategy for investing in Europe. While investing in Western Europe is primarily about obtaining access to advanced technologies, investing in Central and Eastern Europe is more about establishing a presence in the EU common market and expanding infrastructure-which also fits into the framework of the New Silk Road Initiative. An econometric analysis reveals that the investments largely follow conventional explanatory patterns. If we distinguish between different forms of market access, the determinants become much more specific. A high industrial share, sound institutions, and unit labor costs in the target country all have a negative impact on investment in new ventures, but not on investment in existing companies. Differing investment patterns, as well as the heterogeneous interests of the EU member states, make it difficult to implement a coordinated response to the Chinese investment offensive. At the very least, however, a kind of reciprocity should be introduced within the framework of an investment protection agreement between the EU and China. This could reduce the growing skepticism surrounding Chinese investment activities.
    Keywords: F21 ; E22 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; Chinese foreign investment strategy ; knowledge and technology transfer ; FDI determinants
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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