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  • Articles  (33)
  • F22  (15)
  • J24  (15)
  • C21  (11)
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  • Articles  (33)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: This article examines the causal relations between non-European immigration and the characteristics of the housing market in host regions. We constructed a unique database from administrative records and used it to assess annual migration flows into France's 22 administrative regions from 1990 to 2013. We then estimated various panel VAR models, taking into account GDP per capita and the unemployment rate as the main regional economic indicators. We find that immigration has no significant effect on property prices, but that higher property prices significantly reduce immigration rates. We also find no significant relationship between immigration and social housing supply.
    Keywords: E20 ; F22 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; property prices ; social housing ; panel VAR
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In this paper we analyze the impact of immigrants on the type and quantity of native jobs. We use data on fifteen Western European countries during the 1996-2010 period. We find that immigrants, by taking manual-routine type of occupations pushed natives towards more complex (abstract and communication) jobs. Such positive reallocation occurred while the total number of jobs held by natives was unaffected. This job upgrade was associated in the short run to a 0.6% increase in native wages for a doubling of the immigrants' share. These results are robust to the use of two alternative IV strategies based on past settlement of immigrants across European countries measured alternatively with Census or Labor Force data. The job upgrade slowed, but did not come to a halt, during the Great Recession. We also document the labor market flows behind it: the complexity of jobs offered to new native hires was higher relative to the complexity of lost jobs. Finally, we find evidence that such reallocation was significantly larger in countries with more flexible labor laws and that his tendency was particularly strong for less educated workers.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Jobs ; Task specialization ; Employment Protection Laws ; Europe
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: The present paper studies the relationship between R&D investment and firm productivity growth by explicitly accounting for non-linearities in the R&D-productivity relationship and inter-sectoral firm heterogeneity. In order to address these issues, we employ a two step estimation approach, and match two firm-level panel data sets for the OECD countries, which allows us to relax both the linearity and homogeneity assumptions of the canonical Griliches (1979) knowledge capital model. Our results suggest that: (i) R&D investment increases firm productivity with an average elasticity of 0.15; (ii) the impact of R&D investment on firm productivity is differential at different levels of R&D intensity - the productivity elasticity ranges from -0.02 for low levels of R&D intensity to 0.33 for high levels of R&D intensity; (iii) the relationship between R&D expenditures and productivity growth is non-linear, and only after a certain critical mass of R&D is reached, the productivity growth is significantly positive; (iv) there are important inter-sectoral differences with respect to R&D investment and firm productivity - high-tech sectors' firms not only invest more in R&D, but also achieve more in terms of productivity gains connected with research activities.
    Keywords: C14 ; C21 ; D24 ; F23 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; R&D investment ; firm productivity ; generalised propensity score ; Industrielle Forschung ; Produktivität ; Branche ; Vergleich ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: This paper charts the complex dynamics of the movement of technical talent in the world economy and assesses broadly the impact of such mobility on both sending and receiving countries. Based on secondary data and primary information from the Indian and Japanese IT industry, the study presents a global view of the movement of talent and its development and policy implications. By synthesizing disparate data and the multifaceted processes and outcomes of international mobility, the paper examines some of the distributional issues of gains and losses in both sending and receiving countries.
    Keywords: F22 ; I28 ; J24 ; L86 ; ddc:330 ; international migration ; education ; government policy ; human capital ; skills ; information services ; computer software ; Internationale Arbeitsmobilität ; Humankapital ; Softwareindustrie ; Indien ; Japan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In many applications of the differences-in-differences (DID) method, the treatment increases more in the treatment group, but some units are also treated in the control group. In such fuzzy designs, a popular estimator of treatment effects is the DID of the outcome divided by the DID of the treatment, or OLS and 2SLS regressions with time and group fixed effects estimating weighted averages of this ratio across groups. We start by showing that when the treatment also increases in the control group, this ratio estimates a causal effect only if treatment effects are homogenous in the two groups. Even when the distribution of treatment is stable, it requires that treatment effects be constant over time. As this assumption is not always applicable, we propose two alternative estimators. The first estimator relies on a generalization of common trends assumptions to fuzzy designs, while the second extends the changes-in-changes estimator of Athey & Imbens (2006). When the distribution of treatment changes in the control group, treatment effects are partially identified. Finally, we prove that our estimators are asymptotically normal and use them to revisit applied papers using fuzzy designs.
    Keywords: C21 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; differences-in-differences ; changes-in-changes ; quantile treatment effects ; partial identification ; returns to education
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: The objective here is to understand how the mobility of technical talent might be changing the structural relationship between rich and poor countries. This paper examines the under-researched relationship between India and Japan in the context of globalization, migration, and developmental impact with demographic, immigration, and innovation policy issues as key themes. By focusing on the export of technical talent, I argue that India could tap its overseas ‘brain bank’ by diversifying IT export markets, create epistemic networks, meet impending skill shortages in Japan, and induce long-term innovative capability. Immigration reforms and freer movement of talent will be critical.
    Keywords: F22 ; J24 ; O19 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; international migration ; technical talent ; IT industry ; innovation and development ; ‘brain bank’ ; India ; Japan ; Brain Drain ; Informationstechnik ; Globalisierung ; Indien ; Japan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper studies the major determinants that affect the country choice of the talented Italian scientists and researchers who have at least a bachelor's from Italy and live abroad. There are three alternative country choices: the US/Canada, the UK, and other EU countries. On average, the brainy Italians exhibit a higher predicted probability to go to the US. Ceteris paribus, both push and pull factors are important. While having a Ph.D. from outside Italy predicts the UK choice, having extra working experience from outside Italy predicts migration to other EU countries. Those who stay abroad temporarily for two to four years are definitely more likely to go to the UK. Specialization in the fields of humanities, social sciences, and health are strong determinants of migration to the UK. For the move to the US, while the humanities area is a significant deterrent, health is a positive deciding factor. Lack of funds in Italy constitutes a significant push to the US.
    Keywords: J61 ; J24 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; Brain drain ; skilled migration ; Italy ; push-pull factors ; Brain Drain ; Migrationstheorie ; Italien ; Einwanderung ; Italiener ; USA ; Großbritannien ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper examines the potential impacts of East-West migration of talents on the innovative capital and hence the long-run growth prospects in Eastern sending countries. Complementing previous studies, we examine the impact of high skill migration not only on the formation of human capital, but also consider migration's impact on knowledge capital in the sending countries. In line with previous studies we find that in the short- to medium-term high skill migration strictly reduces national innovative capital and hence increases the gap between East and West. However, these effects might be mitigated by factors such as reinforced education of workers, productive investment of remittances, return migration and increased knowledge transfer. Given that the emigration of highly skilled affects human capital differently than knowledge capital, addressing the adverse impacts of the most talented and highly skilled worker emigration efficiently, differentiated policies are required for human capital and knowledge capital.
    Keywords: D50 ; D80 ; F22 ; F24 ; H52 ; I21 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; International labour migration ; skilled workers ; growth ; human capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In 2009 the EU adopted a new migration policy instrument - the Blue Cards (BC) - for attracting highly skilled workers to the EU. The present paper examines the potential impacts, which BC may cause on the less developed sending countries (LDC). According to the adopted framework of innovative capital, the BC will reduce human capital in LDC. In addition, BC will also have a negative impact on knowledge capital. These findings suggest that the BC is not coherent with the EU’s development policy. Without appropriate policy responses, BC fade the developing country growth prospects away. In order to address the skill drain issues, we propose and examine alternative migration policy options for the LDC.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; African sending countries ; high-skill migration ; EU Blue Cards ; innovative capital ; economic growth ; LDC
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Recently, the EU Council adopted a new labour migration policy instrument - the EU Blue Cards (BC) - for attracting the highly skilled workers to the EU. The present paper examines the potential impacts, which BC may cause on less developed sending countries (LDC). Our results suggest that the EU BC will reduce human capital in LDC. In addition, BC will also have a negative impact on knowledge capital. These findings suggest that without appropriate policy responses, BC makes developing country growth prospects rather bleak than blue. Therefore, we propose and analyse alternative migration policy instruments for LDC. We find that policies implemented on the demand side of the skilled labour market are the most efficient. In contrast, policies that address the supply side of the skilled labour market are the least efficient, though they might be less costly to implement.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Knowledge capital ; human capital ; high-skill migration ; innovative capital ; economic growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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