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  • Bone mineral density  (2)
  • Drosophila melanogaster  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster ; isofemale lines ; isogroups ; natural populations ; pigmentation ; body size
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Studies of short or medium range geographic variations play an increasing role in ecological genetics, and sensitive techniques are required to detect them. In this respect, two sampling techniques were compared inD. melanogaster. The biological data were provided by the analysis of four natural populations from the same geographic area, Spain (one) and Southern France (three), for four morphometrical traits: abdomen and thoracic pigmentation, and wing and thorax lengths. Traits were measured on wild living females and on their progeny reared in the laboratory at 25°C. For progeny analyses, two techniques were compared: the usual isofemale line technique, sib families issued from a single female, and a new isogroup technique, the progeny produced by a group of 20 wild-collected parents. Large phenotypic variations were observed in wild living flies, corresponding to the unstability of natural environmental conditions during their development. Among laboratory grown flies, variations were much smaller. Between isogroups, differences were small, due to sampling error and some common environment effects. Variations between lines were much greater, thus demonstrating a strong genetic component. When different populations have to be compared, the isogroup technique should be preferred since, for the same amount of work, the lesser variability between groups provides a more precise characterization of the population means.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone mineral density ; Smokers ; Premenopausal women ; Mineral metabolism ; Sex steroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Smoking is related to decreased bone mass and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the harmful effects of smoking on bone have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the repercussions of smoking on bone mass in premenopausal women, and the relationship between these effects and parameters of mineral metabolism and hormone profile. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in 101 premenopausal women (47 smokers, 54 nonsmokers) with dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DeXA) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine. In a subgroup of the sample (16 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) we measured biochemical indicators of mineral metabolism and hormone profile. BMD in the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and the intertrochanter region was significantly lower in smoker (P〈0.05) than in nonsmokers. Concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin were higher, and free testosterone index (FTI) was lower (P〈0.05) in smokers. We found no significant differences between the groups in parameters of mineral metabolism. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and free testosterone index were directly correlated with values of BMD in different sites. Our findings show that smoking by premenopausal women is associated with decreased BMD and characteristic changes in the hormone profile.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Androgen insensitivity syndrome ; Hormone replacement therapy ; Bone mineral density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The response of bone mass to long-term treatment with estrogen and progesterone in patients with complete androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is unknown. We report a 17-year-old female patient (karyotype 46 X, Y) with AIS studied during a 4-year period. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar spine and proximal femur was sharply reduced at the initial visit, and remained unchanged during long-term follow-up on hormone replacement therapy with estrogens and progestin. Bone metabolism markers were all in the normal range. The lack of significant increase in BMD highlights the importance of androgens on bone physiology that cannot be balanced in spite of an appropriate estrogenic milieu.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Allozyme polymorphism ; linkage disequilibrium ; wine cellar and field populations ; Drosophila melanogaster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Over three years, theAdh and α-Gpdh loci have been studied in two cellar populations ofDrosophila melanogaster and in two field populations which were each near to one of the cellars. Analyses of gene frequencies indicate that the divergence among subpopulations is greater in theAdh locus than in the α-Gpdh locus. Selection for or againstAdh S allele acting on theIn(2L)t inversion influences of the α-Gpdh alleles. This phenomenon may contribute to explain the maintenance of theAdh and α-Gpdh polymorphism and of theIn(2L)t inversion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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