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  • Bone  (16)
  • Springer  (16)
  • 1980-1984  (16)
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  • Springer  (16)
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Histomorphometry ; Bone ; Reproducibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary To study bone histomorphometry reproducibility in normal subjects, we performed during orthopedic surgery bone biopsies in 16 post-menopausal women. Each woman had four bone biopsies, two at the usual site in the iliac crest, one on the left and one on the right side, and two other biopsies just behind the usual site, one at each side. We performed measurements of trabecular bone volume, relative osteoid volume, osteoid surfaces, osteoclastic resorption surfaces and calcification front. The average values of the 16 patients were compared, on the one hand, two by two, by a student test, and on the other hand, by a variance analysis. By these two methods the results showed no significant difference between the average values of the 16 patients at each location for any of the histomorphometric parameters studied. However, there was a location variation which was estimated by the intra-individual variation for a given patient. On the other hand, we calculated from the variance analysis the location variance for a group of 10 to 100 patients. In any case all the parameters had a location variation which was high for osteoclastic resorption surfaces and relative osteoid volume when expressed in % of the absolute value of these parameters. The variation of the trabecular bone volume was 0–46. 15% (95% confident limit interval) in a single patient and the hypothetical value of the location variation was 41.6% for a group of 10 patients and 13.0% for a group of 100 patients.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Collagen ; Density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The density of a bovine cortical bone matrix sample was found in water, several ethanol-water solutions, and in the dried state. Previously the density of the same mineralized bone was found fresh and when desiccated. The volume in each state was estimated from the dimensional changes axially, tangentially, and radially. Confirmation was found by determining the density of dried specimens upon immersion in xylene. The amount of imbibed xylene provided an estimate of the free pore volume in the dried matrix. The volume fraction of the solid constituent, S, in the wet matrix was found to be 0.57, from which the density of S in various solutions was calculated. Density of wet matrix in 0.15 M saline: 1.180 g/cc; for dried matrix, 1.246 g/cc. Density of wet S in saline: 1.33 g/cc; for dried S, 1.42 g/cc, which matches published values for collagen molecules. Dimensional changes between wet and dried state of matrix match published values for artificially cross-linked rat tail tendon fibers. Axially: 1.04, by area: 2.27; by volume: 2.62. Estimate of intrafibrillar volume, assuming 80% of mineral is within fibrils: 0.73 cc/g dry collagen.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 33 (1981), S. 35-39 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Copper ; Resorption ; Bone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary An investigation of the role of copper in bone metabolism was undertaken. Explanted calvaria from 6-day-old mice were grown for 48 h in medium with and without the addition of copper sulfate. Active resorption was found to be significantly inhibited in the presence of copper sulfate concentrations of 10−6M and above. Copper sulfate concentrations of 10−5M and above inhibited hydroxyproline, protein, and DNA synthesis. Lower concentrations were ineffective. The effect of 5 × 10−6M copper sulfate on resorption was reversible. Several other compounds were tested for similar effects and at 5 × 10−6M were found to inhibit bone resorption in the order: copper sulfate 〉 brown gold chloride 〉 sodium aurothiomalate 〉 zinc sulfate 〉 sodium sulfate. The copper sulfate effect was twice that of sodium aurothiomalate, and sodium sulfate was not significantly inhibitory. The results suggest that the high serum copper levels associated with rheumatoid arthritis may reflect the activity of a hypothetical control mechanism of bone resorption. In the diseased state this would act to restore the normal rate of bone resorption.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Soluble proteoglycans ; Resistant proteoglycans ; Collagen ; Bone ; Cartilage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Soluble proteoglycans (SPG) were extracted from bovine (BCC) and human (HCC) costal cartilages by the dissociative method using 4 M guanidinium chloride (GuHCl). Proteoglycans which are resistant to extraction (RPG) were obtained following collagenase digestion or hydroxylamine treatment of the cartilage residues. Similarly, SPG were extracted from bovine metaphyseal and cortical bone using EDTA. The RPG were extracted from the bones using hydroxylamine. Density gradient fractionation under dissociative conditions of cartilage SPG and RPG followed by chromatography on Sepharose 2B revealed that A1D1 RPG are smaller than the SPG. SPG reacted with either collagenase or hydroxylamine are also smaller than the parent SPG. A1D1 fractions obtained from BCC-SPG and RPG or from mixtures of SPG and acid-soluble collagen are free of hydroxyproline. Hydroxyproline is not completely separated from HCC-RPG. Density gradient fractionation of bone proteoglycans and Sepharose chromatography of the A1 and A1D1 fractions showed that those obtained from metaphysis are larger than those from cortical bone. This was attributed to the presence of calcified cartilage in metaphyseal bone. The A1D1 fractions of the metaphyseal proteoglycans seemed to undergo self-association since this fraction is larger than the A1 fraction from which it is derived. Cortical bone proteoglycans do not behave similarly. Density gradient purification under dissociative conditions failed to separate hydroxyproline from the proteoglycans obtained from bone. It is hypothesized that in bone proteoglycans and collagen might be linked.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Osteoclasts ; Macrophage ; Resorption ; Plutonium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Female rats were used to study the kinetics of plutonium transfer from the bone surfaces of the mandibular condyle to osteoclasts and macrophages. This study was made using autoradiographs prepared from plastic sections of the mineralized bones of animals which had been injected with241 Pu citrate. Measurements of the concentration of plutonium in the osteoclasts and macrophages at different times after the injection of plutonium showed that plutonium was concentrated by osteoclasts from bone surfaces and was retained with a half-time of ∼ 70 h. Subsequently, plutonium appeared to be transferred to macrophages. The results showed that plutonium was unlikely to be accumulated by macrophages as a result of their participation in bone resorption.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 36 (1984), S. S7 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Mechanical function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The variety of different mechanical functions required of whole bones is discussed. Often, the design optimizing the structure for one function is not optimal for another function.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Osteopenia ; Noninvasive monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Radiological techniques were utilized for monitoring progressive changes in compact bone in the tibia of monkeys during experimentally induced osteopenia. Bone mass loss in the tibia during restraint was evaluated from radiographs, from bone mineral analysis, and from images reconstructed from gamma ray computerized tomography. The losses during 6 months of restraint tended to occur predominantly in the proximal tibia and were characterized by subperiosteal bone loss, intracortical striations, and scalloped endosteal surfaces. Bone mineral content in the cross section of the tibia declined 17–21%. Tomography demonstrated endosteal widening and reduced mineral content per unit of thickness of cortical bone. In 6 months of recovery, the mineral content of the proximal tibia remained depressed. Effects of the dynamic environment on local-regional changes in various skeletal areas are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; 1,25(OH)2D3 ; 25OHD3 ; Histology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Rachitic rats, maintained on diets with low or normal P contents, were given daily intraperitoneal doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 or 25OHD3 at levels of 100 or 200 ng. Plasma chemistry was measured and the ash content and histological appearance of the bones investigated. Using labeled material it was shown that the dosing levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 employed ensured a higher than normal plasma concentration of that metabolite over the period between doses. 1,25(OH)2D3 was not as effective as 25OHD3 in raising bone ash or reducing the amount of osteoid. The difference between the effects of the metabolites was evident at both dietary P levels, but more marked at the higher P level. In contrast, the metabolites reduced the width of the epiphyseal plate to an approximately similar degree, and this is possibly the reason why there are discrepancies between previous reports of the effectiveness of 1,25(OH)2D3 compared with 25OHD3 or vitamin D3. Dosing with 1,25(OH)2D3 failed to maintain a constant plasma Pi value over the period between doses in animals fed the low P diet.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Histomorphology ; Immobilization ; Quadriplegia ; Multiple sclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The cortical bone histomorphometrics, total visible osteon density, and mean osteonal cross-sectional area were determined for the major long bones and sixth ribs of two individuals with neurological deficit. One was a multiple sclerosis patient who had been in a wheelchair for 15 years. The other was a quadriplegic as a result of poliomyelitis. Statistically significant differences in osteon densities occurred only in the case of the quadriplegic. Nevertheless, in that subject, the total visible osteon densities for bones of the right arm were not statistically different from those of their age-matched (control) radii. Medical history records revealed that there had been partial use of this limb. These results support the belief that mechanical stress is an important factor in the maintenance of normal cortical bone remodeling. In addition, since there were subnormal osteon densities and normal mean osteonal cross-sectional areas, immobilization appears to be characterized by reduced activation frequency with a normal amount of bone turnover per BMU.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone ; Mineral ; Amorphous calcium phosphate ; X-ray diffraction ; Radial distribution function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary X-ray diffraction radial distribution function analysis was used to determine if a significant amount of an amorphous solid phase of calcium phosphate exists in bone, and if so, whether the amount varies as a function of age and maturation. Unfractionated cortical bone from embryonic and posthatch chicks of various ages and a low-density fraction of embryonic bone were studied. No evidence was found for the presence of an amorphous solid phase of calcium phosphate in any of the samples studied, including the recently deposited bone mineral of the low density fraction of embryonic bone. As little as 12.5% of synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) added to bone was readily detected by the radial distribution function technique used. The results clearly indicate that the concept that ACP is the initial solid mineral phase deposited in bone, and the major mineral constituent of young bone is no longer tenable. The concept does not provide an accurate description of the nature of the initial bone mineral deposited, or the changes that occur with maturation, nor can it acount for the compositional and X-ray diffraction changes that the mineral component undergoes during maturation and aging.
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