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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 110 (1999), S. 175-180 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Pyrenophora teres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A half-diallel was made between five six-rowed Nordic spring barleys to study the genetics of resistance to net blotch. Twenty-five doubled-haploid (DH) lines from each cross and the parents were sown in hill plots in Finland in 1997 and 1998. The plots were artificially inoculated with Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg. and assessed for resistance to net blotch. There were statistically significant differences in resistance of the five parents to net blotch. General combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects in the progeny were statistically significant in both years, but GCA effects predominated. Evidence for additive epistasis was minimal. Progeny of a particular cross were less resistant to net blotch than the better parent. The most resistant progeny were derived from the cross between the two most resistant parents, Pohto and WW7977, and resistance was governed by at least eleven effective factors. Narrow sense heritability estimates for resistance to net blotch were high during both years (0.84–0.99). It appears that net blotch resistance of progeny from crosses can be largely predicted from reactions of the parents. Quantitative resistance to net blotch can be further advanced by identification and incorporation of superior parents, from a screening such as reported here, into a recurrent selection breeding programme.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; scald ; Rhynchosporium secalis ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale cereale L.). These fungal isolates derived from four sites and three host varieties. Disease development was monitored on two leaves of seedlings in the greenhouse employing a standard scale, and on adult plants in the field by assessing the diseased area on the three uppermost leaves. A comparison was also made between the pathogenicity and virulence of ten Finnish and ten Canadian R. secalis isolates. The Finnish isolates varied in virulence, but with the exception of Algerian (CI 1179) seedlings and adult La Mesita (CI 7565) all seedlings and adult plants of the entire differential series were resistant to all isolates. Canadian isolates were, on average, less virulent than Finnish isolates. All the Nordic checks were susceptible to all Finnish and seven Canadian isolates, but differences in the degree of susceptibility were evident. Isolates of R. secalis from barley were non-pathogenic on rye, isolates from Elymus repens L. were non-pathogenic on barley and rye, and isolates from rye were only pathogenic on rye. Finnish R. secalis isolates contain no redundant pathogenic diversity. The differential series represents a useful, but as yet untapped, source of resistance to R. secalis for Finnish barley breeders.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 94 (1997), S. 201-208 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; quantitative resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Resistance to Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., the net blotch pathogen, was studied in six 6-row Nordic spring barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the field and in the greenhouse. The barley genotypes were: Arve, Agneta, Artturi, H6221, Pohto and WW7977. Disease progress was monitored in the field (1994 and 1995) in small artificially infected plots, sown at commercial seeding rates, and in infected hill plots (1994). Areas under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) and apparent infection rates (r) were calculated for the uppermost 3 or 4 leaves. Terminal severities (TS) were also recorded. Infection response of seedlings to a range of P. teres isolates was assessed in the greenhouse using a standard scale. In small plots in the field, Arve and Agneta were very susceptible to P. teres infection, as indicated by large values for AUDPC and TS. H6221 and WW7977 were highly resistant, while Artturi and Pohto were moderately resistant. In hill plots the situation was similar, except that Artturi and Pohto appeared less resistant than in the small plots. The relatively greater resistance of H6221 and WW7977 was reflected in seedling infection responses. According to the results of these experiments, H6221 and WW7977 possess adequate levels of quantitative resistance to P. teres to make them useful parents in future crossing programs aimed at improving net blotch resistance in Finnish spring barleys.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 24 (1982), S. 2115-2121 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 26 (1984), S. 1418-1424 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Aerobic glucose metabolism by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in steady-state biofilms at various substrate loading rates and reactor dilution rates was investigated. Variables monitored were substrate (glucose), biofilm cellular density, biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) density, and suspended cellular and EPS concentrations. A mathematical model developed to describe the system was compared to experimental data. Intrinsic yield and rate coefficients included in the model were obtained from suspended continuous culture studies of glucose metabolism by P. aeruginosa. Experimental data compared well with the mathematical model, suggesting that P. aeruginosa does not behave differently in steady-state biofilm cultures, where diffusional resistance is negligible, than in suspended cultures. This implies that kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients for P. aeruginosa derived in suspended continuous culture can be used to describe steady-state biofilm processes.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Russian wheat aphid ; Diuraphis noxia ; barley ; resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The inheritance of resistance to Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), in two resistant barleys, Hordeum vulgare L., ASE/2CM//B76BB and ‘Gloria/Come’, was studied in the field and in the greenhouse. The resistant genotypes were crossed with susceptible genotypes ‘Esperanza’ and ‘Shyri’. Resistance reactions of F1, BC1, and F2 plants, and individual F2 plant derived F3 families indicated that resistance in each genotype was controlled by the same single dominant gene.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 92 (1996), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Seedlings of a differential barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) series (21 genotypes) and of six check genotypes were used in the greenhouse to assess variation in virulence among 20 single-spore isolates of the net blotch pathogen. Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f.teres Smedeg., collected from various sites in Finland. The experiment was run twice and symptom expression was recorded on the first three leaves. Analysis of second leaf symptom scores from Run 1 indicated differences in virulence between isolates, all of which were pathogenic, and differential resistance among the barleys. The virulence of P. teres isolates appeared to be conditioned by the host barley from which the isolate derived; the average virulence of isolates collected from a susceptible host was greater than that of isolates collected from a less susceptible host. Results from Run 2 were similar regarding resistance within the barleys, but variation in virulence among the P. teres isolates was not consistent with that from Run 1. CI 9819 caries duplicate genes for resistance to P. teres (Rpt1b and Rpt1c), and CI 7548 possesses Rpt3d. Both genotypes were highly resistant to all isolates. The Rpt1a gene of Tifang (CI4407) conferred resistance to all isolates in Run 2, but only to about half of the isolates in Run 1. The checks, including two of the symptomatically most resistant Nordic barley genotypes, were universally susceptible during these stringent tests. No selective pressure has been placed on Finnish isolates of P. teres through previous deployment of major resistance genes, and it is speculated that any variation in virulence among isolates is likely to be due to a combination of evolutionary forces including, natural selection, random genetic drift and gene flow.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 27 (1985), S. 1662-1667 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of bulk-water bacterial cell concentration and specific growth rate history on bacterial adsorption rates to surfaces was investigated using response surface analysis. A pure culture of Pseudomonas sp. 224S was grown in a chemostat and pumped into a continuous flow reactor where the bacteria were exposed to clean, glass surfaces under turbulent flow conditions for a period of six hours. Adsorption rate decreased approximately linearly with increasing specific growth rate history. Glass surfaces became saturated with 224S at ca. 0.1% coverage and the resulting spatial pattern of the adsorbed cells deviated from random in the direction of uniformity.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: methanol sensor ; methanol monitoring and control ; methylotrophic yeast fermentation ; Pichia pastoris ; transferrin ; shake-flask cultures ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can be used to express recombinant genes at high levels under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Accurate regulation of the methanol concentration in P. pastoris cultures is necessary to maintain induction, while preventing accumulation of methanol to cytotoxic levels. We developed an inexpensive methanol sensor that uses a gas-permeable silicone rubber tube immersed in the culture medium and an organic solvent vapor detector. The sensor was used to monitor methanol concentration continuously throughout a fed-batch shake-flask culture of a P. pastoris clone producing the N-lobe of human transferrin. The sensor calibration was stable for the duration of the culture and the output signal accurately reflected the methanol concentration determined off-line by HPLC. A closed-loop control system utilizing this sensor was developed and used to maintain a 0.3% (v/v) methanol concentration in the culture. Use of this system resulted in a fivefold increase in volumetric protein productivity over levels obtained using the conventional fed-batch protocol. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 56: 279-286, 1997.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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