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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In presence of external electric and magnetic fields, the Schrödinger equation for many-electron systems is transformed into a continuity equation and an Euler-type equation of motion in configuration space. Then, using the natural-orbital Hamiltonian, as defined by Adams, the two fluid-dynamical equations are derived in the three-dimensional space. This generates a “classical” view of such quantum systems, corresponding to an MCSCF wave function: The many-electron Schrödinger fluid consists of individual fluid components, each corresponding to a natural orbital and having its own charge density and current density. The local observables, viz., the net charge density and net current density, are obtained by merely summing over the natural orbitals, with the occupation numbers as weight factors; but, the net velocity field cannot be so obtained. Further, although each fluid component moves irrotationally in the absence of a magnetic field, the net velocity field is not irrotaional. The irrotational character of each velocity component is destroyed by rotation of the nuclear framework of the system while electron spin introduces an additional term, the spin magnetization moment, into each component current density. The physical significance of the fluid-dynamical equations as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new density-functional equation is suggested for the direct calculation of electron density ρ(r) in many-electron systems. This employs a kinetic energy functional T2 + f(r)T0, where T2 is the original Weizsäcker correction, T0 is the Thomas-Fermi term, and f(r) is a correction factor that depends on both r and the number of electrons N. Using the Hartree-Fock relation between the kinetic and the exchange energy density, and a nonlocal approximation to the latter, the kinetic energy-density functional is written (in a.u.) \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ t[\rho] = {\raise0.7ex\hbox{$1$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 4}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$4$}}\nabla ^2 \rho + {\raise0.7ex\hbox{$1$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 8}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$8$}}(\nabla \rho \cdot \nabla \rho)/\rho + C_k f({\bf r})\rho ^{5/3}, $$\end{document} where \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ C_k = {\raise0.7ex\hbox{$2$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {2 {10}}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{${10}$}}(3\pi ^2)^{2/3} $\end{document}. Incorporating the above expression in the total energy density functional and minimizing the latter subject to N representability conditions for ρ(r) result in an Euler-Lagrange nonlinear second-order differential equation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \left[{ - {\raise0.7ex\hbox{$1$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$2$}}\nabla ^2 + v_{{\rm nuc}} ({\bf r}) + v_{{\rm cou}} ({\bf r}) + v_{XC} ({\bf r}) + {\raise0.7ex\hbox{$5$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {5 3}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$3$}}C_k g({\bf r})\rho ^{2/3}} \right]\phi ({\bf r}) = \mu \phi ({\bf r}) $$\end{document} where μ is the chemical potential, we have ρ(r) = |φ(r)|2, and g(r) is related to f(r). Numerical solutions of the above equation for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, by modeling f(r) and g(r) as simple sums over Gaussians, show excellent agreement with the corresponding Hartree-Fock ground-state densities and energies, indicating that this is likely to be a promising method for calculating fairly accurate electron densities in atoms and molecules.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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