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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We present new techniques for evolving binary black hole systems which allow the accurate determination of gravitational waveforms directly from the wave zone region of the numerical simulations. Rather than excising the black hole interiors, our approach follows the "puncture" treatment of black holes, but utilizing a new gauge condition which allows the black holes to move successfully through the computational domain. We apply these techniques to an inspiraling binary, modeling the radiation generated during the final plunge and ringdown. We demonstrate convergence of the waveforms and and good conservation of mass-energy, with just over 3% of the system s mass converted to gravitational radiation.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: LISA will be able to detect gravitational waves from inspiralling massive black hole (MBH) binaries out to redshifts z 〉 10. If the binary masses and luminosity distances can be extracted from the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data stream, this information can be used to reveal the merger history of MBH binaries and their host galaxies in the evolving universe. Since this parameter extraction generally requires that LISA observe the inspiral for a significant fraction of its yearly orbit, carrying out this program requires adequate sensitivity at low frequencies, f 〈 10(exp -4) Hz. Using several candidate low frequency sensitivities, we examine LISA's potential for characterizing MBH binary coalescences at redshifts z 〉 1.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) has been selected for flight demonstration by NASA s New Millennium Program (NMP) as part of the Space Technology 6 (ST6) mission. ASE is scheduled to fly on the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Techsat-21 constellation in 2006. Tech- Sat-21 consists of three satellites flying in a variable-geometry formation in Earth orbit. Each satellite is equipped with X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, yielding high spatial resolution images (approx. 3 m) of the Earth s surface. The constellation will fly at an altitude of 550 km, in a 35.4 inclination circular orbit, yielding exact repeat-track observations every 13 days. Prior to full deployment, elements of the versatile ASE spacecraft command and control software, image formation software and science processing software will be utilized and tested on two very different platforms in 2003: AirSAR and EO-1 (described below). Advantages of Autonomous Operations: ASE will demonstrate advanced autonomous science data acquisition, processing, and product downlink prioritization, as well as autonomous spacecraft command and control, and fault detection. The advantages of spacecraft autonomy are to future missions include: (a) making the best use of reduced downlink; (b) the overcoming of communication delays through decisionmaking in situ, enabling fast reaction to dynamic events; (c) an increase of science content per byte of returned data; and (d) an avoidance of return of null (no-change/no feature) datasets: if there is no change detectable between two scenes of the same target, there is no need to return the second dataset.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present multi-wavelength detections of nine candidate gravitationally-lensed dusty starforming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at 218 GHz (1.4 mm) from the ACT equatorial survey. Among the brightest ACT sources, these represent the subset of the total ACT sample lying in Herschel SPIRE fields, and all nine of the 218 GHz detections were found to have bright Herschel counterparts. By fitting their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with a modified blackbody model with power-law temperature distribution, we find the sample has a median redshift of 4.1 (+ 1.1, -10) (68 percent confidence interval), as expected for 218 GHz selection and an apparent total infrared luminosity of log 10(uL(sub IR)/solar luminosity) = 13.86(+0.33, -0.30), which suggests that they are either strongly lensed sources or unresolved collections of unlensed DSFGs. The effective apparent diameter of the sample is square root of mu d = 4.2 (+ 1.7, -1.0) kpc, further evidence of strong lensing of multiplicity, since the typical diameter of dusty star-forming galaxies is 1.0-2.5 kpc. We emphasize that the effective apparent diameter derives from SED modeling without the assumption of opticaly thin dust (as opposed to image morphology). We find that the sources have substantial optical depth (tau = (4.2+, -1.9) of dust around the peak in the modified blackbody spectrum (lambda obs is less than 500 micrometers), a result that is robust to model choice.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN36237 , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (ISSN 0035-8711) (e-ISSN 1365-2966); ujme 464; 1; 968-984
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 (zeta = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 MHz and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S(sub 610) = 5.6 +/- 1.4 mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest-mass systems, M(sub 500,SZ) = (5.0 +/- 1.2) x 10(sup14) solar mass foud to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S(sub 325) = 10.3 +/- 5.3 mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of alpha sup 610 sub 325 = 1.0(sup +0.7)(sub 0.9). This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio halos, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P(sub 1.4GHz) = (1.0 +/- 03) x 10(sup 24) W Hz(sup -1), placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the ICM morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of perpendicular = 1880 +/- 210 km s(sup -1). We construct a simple merger model of infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-L(sub x) scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 just before first core crossing.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN32419 , Monthly Notices Letters of the Royal Astronomical Observatory (e-ISSN 1745-3933); 459; 4; 4240-4258
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Developments in IRS (Implicit Rotating Source) multi-mode waveforms modeling.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8779 , American Physical Society (APS) April Meeting 2013; 13-16 Apr. 2013; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum "recoil kick" of up to approx. 4000 km/s. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as approx. eta(sup 2) (where eta is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with approx. eta(sup 3). We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. S
    Keywords: Astrophysics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Using numerical relativity as guidance and the natural flexibility of the effective-one-body (EOB) model, we extend the latter so that it can successfully match the numerical relativity waveforms of non-spinning binary black holes during the last stages of inspiral, merger and ringdown. Here, by successfully, we mean with phase differences 〈 or approx. 8% of a gravitational-wave cycle accumulated until the end of the ringdown phase. We obtain this result by simply adding a 4 post-Newtonian order correction in the EOB radial potential and determining the (constant) coefficient by imposing high-matching performances with numerical waveforms of mass ratios m1/m2 = 1,2/3,1/2 and = 1/4, m1 and m2 being the individual black-hole masses. The final black-hole mass and spin predicted by the numerical simulations are used to determine the ringdown frequency and decay time of three quasi-normal-mode damped sinusoids that are attached to the EOB inspiral-(plunge) waveform at the light-ring. The accurate EOB waveforms may be employed for coherent searches of gravitational waves emitted by non-spinning coalescing binary black holes with ground-based laser-interferometer detectors.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: General relativity predicts the gravitational radiation signatures of mergers of compact binaries, such as coalescing binary black hole systems. Derivations of waveform predictions for such systems are required for optimal scientific analysis of observational gravitational wave data, and have so far been achieved primarily with the aid of the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation. The quality of this treatment is unclear, however, for the important late inspiral portion. We derive late-inspiral waveforms via a complementary approach, direct numerical simulation of Einstein's equations, which has recently matured sufficiently for such applications. We compare waveform phasing from simulations covering the last approximately 14 cycles of gravitational radiation from an equal-mass binary system of nonspinning black holes with the corresponding 3PN and 3.5PN orbital phasing. We find agreement consistent with internal error estimates based on either approach at the level of one radian over approximately 10 cycles. The result suggests that PN waveforms for this system are effective roughly until the system reaches its last stable orbit just prior to the final merger/
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: To appear in Physical Review Letter
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately 〈 M/Mo approximately 〈 10(exp 7) at SNR 〉 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z 〉 15.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Sponsored in part by the Leon A. Herreid Graduate Fellowship, The Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies and by the Korean Government (MOEHRD, Basis Research Promotion Fund
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