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  • Annual grassland  (3)
  • Relative growth rate  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Energy content ; Relative growth rate ; Seed weight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Relative growth rate in radish is not influenced by initial seed weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 79 (1989), S. 542-550 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Bromus ; Relative growth rate ; Nitrate uptake ; Limiting external concentration ; Grasses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Two annual species of Bromus, an invader (B. hordeaceus, ex B. mollis) and a non-invader (B. intermedius), were grown for 28 days in growth chambers, at 5 and 100 μM NO 3 - in flowing nutrient solution. No differences between the two species were observed at either NO 3 - level, in terms of relative growth rate (RGR) or its components, dry matter partitioning, specific NO 3 - absorption rate, nitrogen concentration, and other characteristics of NO 3 - uptake and photosynthesis. The effects of decreasing NO 3 - concentration in the solution were mainly to decrease the NO 3 - concentration in the plants through decreased absorption rate, and to decrease the leaf area ratio through increased specific leaf mass and decreased leaf mass ratio. Organic nitrogen concentration varied little between the two treatments, which may be the reason why photosynthetic rates were not altered. Consequently, RGR was only slightly decreased in the 5-μM treatment compared to the 100-μM treatment. This is in contrast with other species, where growth is reduced at much higher NO 3 - concentrations. These discrepancies may be related to differences in RGR, since a log-linear relationship was found between RGR and the NO 3 - concentration at which growth is first reduced. In addition, a strong linear relationship was found between the RGR of these species and their maximum absorption rate for nitrate, suggesting that the growth of species with low maximum RGR may be partly regulated by nutrient uptake.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Biomass allocation ; Nicotiana ; Nitrogen nutrition ; Photosynthesis ; Relative growth rate ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) ; Transgenic plant (tobacco antisense DNA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants and transgenic tobacco transformed with antisense rbcS to decrease expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were grown at 300 mol-m−2 · s−1 irradiance and 20° C at either 0.1, 0.7 or 5 mM NH4NO3. In high nitrogen (N), growth was reduced in parallel with the inhibition of photosynthesis when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation. In limiting N, photosynthesis was reduced strongly when Rubisco was decreased by genetic manipulation, but growth was hardly affected. At all N levels, decreased expression of Rubisco led to a decrease in the amount of starch accumulated in the leaves. There was a large increase of the specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area maintained per unit dry weight in the leaf) in plants with decreased Rubisco. Increased SLA was associated with an increased inorganic and a decreased carbon contribution to leaf structural dry weight. The increased SLA represents a more efficient investment of photosynthate with respect to maximisation of leaf area and light interception, and partly compensates for the decreased rate of photosynthesis in plants with decreased expression of Rubisco. The changes of starch content and SLA were particularly large in limiting N, when growth rate was effectively independent of the rate of photosynthesis. Increased N availability led to a large increase of the shoot/ root ratio, but only a small increase in SLA. It is argued that N availability and the availability of photosynthate both regulate storage and allocation of biomass to optimize resource utilization, but achieve this via different mechanisms.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Annual grassland ; Serpentine ; Microelements ; Gopher mound ; Ion uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Portions of an annual serpentine grassland community in California are subject to frequent gopher mound formation. Consequently, studies were undertaken to characterize the effects of mound soils on plant growth and ion uptake. For two of the dominant annual species (Bromus mollis L. and Plantago erecta Morris), growth was reduced in gopher mound soil relative to that in inter-mound soil. A similar reduction in growth was found for plants grown in soils collected at a depth corresponding to the depth of gopher burrowing. This reduction in growth was associated with lower total P and N contents of the soil which were reflected in lower shoot contents of N and P. Additional experiments, however, showed that reduced N and P availabilities in mound soil were not entirely responsible for the growth reduction. Similarly, shoot Ca/Mg ratios were reduced in mound soil but additions of Ca improved the Ca/Mg ratio without improving growth. Growth reductions were associated with altered shoot concentrations of microelements, particularly elevated levels of Mn. A competition experiment between Plantago and Bromus showed that Bromus was more competitive than Plantago in mound and inter-mound soils and that soil type had only small affects on the nature of the interaction between the two species.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Annual grassland ; Serpentine ; Nutrient addition ; Gophers ; Mulch
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Application of slow release fertiliser to small (0.5x1 m) plots within a serpentine annual grassland community led to significant increases in above-ground biomass and a shift in species relative abundances. In fertilised plots the native forb species which usually dominate the grassland were almost totally replaced by grasses. In the years following initial fertiliser application, a heavy mulch formed from the previous year's grass growth allowed establishment of grass species such as Bromus mollis but significantly reduced forb establishment. Gopher disturbance of fertilised plots in the second and third years of the experiment effectively removed the grass mulch and allowed re-establishment of forb species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Annual grassland ; Avena barbata CO2 ; Reproduction ; Water relations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Global atmospheric CO2 is increasing at a rate of 1.5–2 ppm per year and is predicted to double by the end of the next century. Understanding how terrestrial ecosystems will respond in this changing environment is an important goal of current research. Here we present results from a field study of elevated CO2 in a California annual grassland. Elevated CO2 led to lower leaf-level stomatal conductance and transpiration (approximately 50%) and higher mid-day leaf water potentials (30–35%) in the most abundant species of the grassland, Avena barbata Brot. Higher CO2 concentrations also resulted in greater midday photosynthetic rates (70% on average). The effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance and leaf water potential decreased towards the end of the growing season, when Avena began to show signs of senescence. Water-use efficiency was approximately doubled in elevated CO2, as estimated by instantaneous gas-exchange measurements and seasonal carbon isotope discrimination. Increases in CO2 and photosynthesis resulted in more seeds per plant (30%) and taller and heavier plants (27% and 41%, respectively). Elevated CO2 also reduced seed N concentrations (9%).
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