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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-09-18
    Description: Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn -- Schuurman, Janine -- Losen, Mario -- Bleeker, Wim K -- Martinez-Martinez, Pilar -- Vermeulen, Ellen -- den Bleker, Tamara H -- Wiegman, Luus -- Vink, Tom -- Aarden, Lucien A -- De Baets, Marc H -- van de Winkel, Jan G J -- Aalberse, Rob C -- Parren, Paul W H I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Sep 14;317(5844):1554-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sanquin Research-AMC Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Immunopathology, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17872445" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allergens/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antigens, CD20/immunology ; Antigens, Plant ; Autoantibodies/immunology ; Glycoproteins/immunology ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Constant Regions/chemistry ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin G/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains ; Macaca mulatta ; Mice ; Mutation ; Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental/immunology/prevention & control ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/immunology ; Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-03-09
    Description: Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scally, Aylwyn -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Jordan, Gregory E -- Goodhead, Ian -- Herrero, Javier -- Hobolth, Asger -- Lappalainen, Tuuli -- Mailund, Thomas -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- McCarthy, Shane -- Montgomery, Stephen H -- Schwalie, Petra C -- Tang, Y Amy -- Ward, Michelle C -- Xue, Yali -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Alkan, Can -- Andersen, Lars N -- Ayub, Qasim -- Ball, Edward V -- Beal, Kathryn -- Bradley, Brenda J -- Chen, Yuan -- Clee, Chris M -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Graves, Tina A -- Gu, Yong -- Heath, Paul -- Heger, Andreas -- Karakoc, Emre -- Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Mort, Matthew -- Mullikin, James C -- Munch, Kasper -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Phillips, Andrew D -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rogers, Anthony S -- Sajjadian, Saba -- Schmidt, Dominic -- Shaw, Katy -- Simpson, Jared T -- Stenson, Peter D -- Turner, Daniel J -- Vigilant, Linda -- Vilella, Albert J -- Whitener, Weldon -- Zhu, Baoli -- Cooper, David N -- de Jong, Pieter -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T -- Eichler, Evan E -- Flicek, Paul -- Goldman, Nick -- Mundy, Nicholas I -- Ning, Zemin -- Odom, Duncan T -- Ponting, Chris P -- Quail, Michael A -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Searle, Stephen M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Rogers, Jane -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Durbin, Richard -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 202218/European Research Council/International -- A15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 7;483(7388):169-75. doi: 10.1038/nature10842.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genetic Speciation ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Gorilla gorilla/*genetics ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Pongo/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Species Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-05
    Description: Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Li, Heng -- Kelley, Joanna L -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Veeramah, Krishna R -- Woerner, August E -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Santpere, Gabriel -- Cagan, Alexander -- Theunert, Christoph -- Casals, Ferran -- Laayouni, Hafid -- Munch, Kasper -- Hobolth, Asger -- Halager, Anders E -- Malig, Maika -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Hernando-Herraez, Irene -- Prufer, Kay -- Pybus, Marc -- Johnstone, Laurel -- Lachmann, Michael -- Alkan, Can -- Twigg, Dorina -- Petit, Natalia -- Baker, Carl -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Dabad, Marc -- Wilson, Michael L -- Stevison, Laurie -- Camprubi, Cristina -- Carvalho, Tiago -- Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora -- Vives, Laura -- Mele, Marta -- Abello, Teresa -- Kondova, Ivanela -- Bontrop, Ronald E -- Pusey, Anne -- Lankester, Felix -- Kiyang, John A -- Bergl, Richard A -- Lonsdorf, Elizabeth -- Myers, Simon -- Ventura, Mario -- Gagneux, Pascal -- Comas, David -- Siegismund, Hans -- Blanc, Julie -- Agueda-Calpena, Lidia -- Gut, Marta -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Tishkoff, Sarah A -- Mullikin, James C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Gut, Ivo G -- Gonder, Mary Katherine -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Hahn, Beatrice H -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Akey, Joshua M -- Bertranpetit, Jaume -- Reich, David -- Mailund, Thomas -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Hvilsom, Christina -- Andres, Aida M -- Wall, Jeffrey D -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Hammer, Michael F -- Eichler, Evan E -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- DP1 ES022577/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- DP1ES022577-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095882/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01_HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12228. Epub 2013 Jul 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Animals, Zoo/genetics ; Asia, Southeastern ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Flow/genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/genetics ; Gorilla gorilla/classification/genetics ; Hominidae/classification/*genetics ; Humans ; Inbreeding ; Pan paniscus/classification/genetics ; Pan troglodytes/classification/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Population Density
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyer, Matthias -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer -- Glocke, Isabelle -- Nickel, Birgit -- Arsuaga, Juan-Luis -- Martinez, Ignacio -- Gracia, Ana -- de Castro, Jose Maria Bermudez -- Carbonell, Eudald -- Paabo, Svante -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 16;505(7483):403-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12788. Epub 2013 Dec 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; 1] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China. ; 1] Centro de Investigacion Sobre la Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain [2] Departamento de Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. ; 1] Centro de Investigacion Sobre la Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain [2] Area de Paleontologia, Depto. de Geografia y Geologia, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain. ; Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana, Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca, 09002 Burgos, Spain. ; 1] Institut Catala de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolucio Social, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n (Edifici W3), Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain [2] Area de Prehistoria, Dept. d'Historia i Historia de l'Art, Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Fac. de Lletres, Av. Catalunya, 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; Consensus Sequence/genetics ; Cytosine/metabolism ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Deamination ; Femur/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; *Fossils ; Genome, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*classification/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neanderthals/genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Spain
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jennifer -- Cunha, Larissa D -- Park, Sunmin -- Yang, Mao -- Lu, Qun -- Orchard, Robert -- Li, Quan-Zhen -- Yan, Mei -- Janke, Laura -- Guy, Cliff -- Linkermann, Andreas -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Green, Douglas R -- 1ZIAES10328601/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI40646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel 24105, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/blood ; Inflammation/blood/genetics/*pathology ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Kidney/metabolism/pathology ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood/genetics/*immunology/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Phagocytes/cytology/physiology ; Phagosomes/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-08-02
    Description: Peripheral pain pathways are activated by a range of stimuli. We used diphtheria toxin to kill all mouse postmitotic sensory neurons expressing the sodium channel Nav1.8. Mice showed normal motor activity and low-threshold mechanical and acute noxious heat responses but did not respond to noxious mechanical pressure or cold. They also showed a loss of enhanced pain responses and spontaneous pain behavior upon treatment with inflammatory insults. In contrast, nerve injury led to heightened pain sensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli indistinguishable from that seen with normal littermates. Pain behavior correlates well with central input from sensory neurons measured electrophysiologically in vivo. These data demonstrate that Na(v)1.8-expressing neurons are essential for mechanical, cold, and inflammatory pain but not for neuropathic pain or heat sensing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abrahamsen, Bjarke -- Zhao, Jing -- Asante, Curtis O -- Cendan, Cruz Miguel -- Marsh, Steve -- Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro -- Nassar, Mohammed A -- Dickenson, Anthony H -- Wood, John N -- BB/F000227/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9717869/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Aug 1;321(5889):702-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1156916.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Nociception Group, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18669863" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cold Temperature ; Electrophysiology ; Freund's Adjuvant ; Hot Temperature ; Inflammation/*physiopathology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel ; Neurons, Afferent/*physiology ; Nociceptors/physiology ; Pain/*physiopathology ; Pain Measurement ; Pain Threshold ; Pressure ; Sodium Channels/genetics/*metabolism ; TRPV Cation Channels/genetics/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-04-25
    Description: The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bovine HapMap Consortium -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Taylor, Jeremy F -- Van Tassell, Curtis P -- Barendse, William -- Eversole, Kellye A -- Gill, Clare A -- Green, Ronnie D -- Hamernik, Debora L -- Kappes, Steven M -- Lien, Sigbjorn -- Matukumalli, Lakshmi K -- McEwan, John C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Schnabel, Robert D -- Weinstock, George M -- Wheeler, David A -- Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo -- Boettcher, Paul J -- Caetano, Alexandre R -- Garcia, Jose Fernando -- Hanotte, Olivier -- Mariani, Paola -- Skow, Loren C -- Sonstegard, Tad S -- Williams, John L -- Diallo, Boubacar -- Hailemariam, Lemecha -- Martinez, Mario L -- Morris, Chris A -- Silva, Luiz O C -- Spelman, Richard J -- Mulatu, Woudyalew -- Zhao, Keyan -- Abbey, Colette A -- Agaba, Morris -- Araujo, Flabio R -- Bunch, Rowan J -- Burton, James -- Gorni, Chiara -- Olivier, Hanotte -- Harrison, Blair E -- Luff, Bill -- Machado, Marco A -- Mwakaya, Joel -- Plastow, Graham -- Sim, Warren -- Smith, Timothy -- Thomas, Merle B -- Valentini, Alessio -- Williams, Paul -- Womack, James -- Woolliams, John A -- Liu, Yue -- Qin, Xiang -- Worley, Kim C -- Gao, Chuan -- Jiang, Huaiyang -- Moore, Stephen S -- Ren, Yanru -- Song, Xing-Zhi -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Hernandez, Ryan D -- Muzny, Donna M -- Patil, Shobha -- San Lucas, Anthony -- Fu, Qing -- Kent, Matthew P -- Vega, Richard -- Matukumalli, Aruna -- McWilliam, Sean -- Sclep, Gert -- Bryc, Katarzyna -- Choi, Jungwoo -- Gao, Hong -- Grefenstette, John J -- Murdoch, Brenda -- Stella, Alessandra -- Villa-Angulo, Rafael -- Wright, Mark -- Aerts, Jan -- Jann, Oliver -- Negrini, Riccardo -- Goddard, Mike E -- Hayes, Ben J -- Bradley, Daniel G -- Barbosa da Silva, Marcos -- Lau, Lilian P L -- Liu, George E -- Lynn, David J -- Panzitta, Francesca -- Dodds, Ken G -- R01 GM083606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 24;324(5926):528-32. doi: 10.1126/science.1167936.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breeding ; Cattle/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Frequency ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Population Density
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2010-05-15
    Description: It is predicted that climate change will cause species extinctions and distributional shifts in coming decades, but data to validate these predictions are relatively scarce. Here, we compare recent and historical surveys for 48 Mexican lizard species at 200 sites. Since 1975, 12% of local populations have gone extinct. We verified physiological models of extinction risk with observed local extinctions and extended projections worldwide. Since 1975, we estimate that 4% of local populations have gone extinct worldwide, but by 2080 local extinctions are projected to reach 39% worldwide, and species extinctions may reach 20%. Global extinction projections were validated with local extinctions observed from 1975 to 2009 for regional biotas on four other continents, suggesting that lizards have already crossed a threshold for extinctions caused by climate change.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sinervo, Barry -- Mendez-de-la-Cruz, Fausto -- Miles, Donald B -- Heulin, Benoit -- Bastiaans, Elizabeth -- Villagran-Santa Cruz, Maricela -- Lara-Resendiz, Rafael -- Martinez-Mendez, Norberto -- Calderon-Espinosa, Martha Lucia -- Meza-Lazaro, Rubi Nelsi -- Gadsden, Hector -- Avila, Luciano Javier -- Morando, Mariana -- De la Riva, Ignacio J -- Victoriano Sepulveda, Pedro -- Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte -- Ibarguengoytia, Nora -- Aguilar Puntriano, Cesar -- Massot, Manuel -- Lepetz, Virginie -- Oksanen, Tuula A -- Chapple, David G -- Bauer, Aaron M -- Branch, William R -- Clobert, Jean -- Sites, Jack W Jr -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):894-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1184695.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. lizardrps@gmail.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization ; Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Biological Evolution ; Body Temperature ; *Climate Change ; *Ecosystem ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Forecasting ; Geography ; Global Warming ; *Lizards/genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mexico ; Models, Biological ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Reproduction ; Seasons ; Selection, Genetic ; Temperature
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-08-11
    Description: During development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, radial glial cells (RGCs) generate layer-specific subtypes of excitatory neurons in a defined temporal sequence, in which lower-layer neurons are formed before upper-layer neurons. It has been proposed that neuronal subtype fate is determined by birthdate through progressive restriction of the neurogenic potential of a common RGC progenitor. Here, we demonstrate that the murine cerebral cortex contains RGC sublineages with distinct fate potentials. Using in vivo genetic fate mapping and in vitro clonal analysis, we identified an RGC lineage that is intrinsically specified to generate only upper-layer neurons, independently of niche and birthdate. Because upper cortical layers were expanded during primate evolution, amplification of this RGC pool may have facilitated human brain evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287277/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287277/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franco, Santos J -- Gil-Sanz, Cristina -- Martinez-Garay, Isabel -- Espinosa, Ana -- Harkins-Perry, Sarah R -- Ramos, Cynthia -- Muller, Ulrich -- MH078833/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS046456/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS060355/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS046456/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 10;337(6095):746-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1223616.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dorris Neuroscience Center and Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22879516" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Cerebral Cortex/*cytology/embryology ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/physiology ; *Neurogenesis ; Neuroglia/*cytology ; Neurons/*cytology/physiology ; Recombination, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1991-03-22
    Description: The achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes of Drosophila allow cells to become sensory organ mother cells. Although ac and sc have similar patterns of expression, deletion of either gene removes specific subsets of sensory organs. This specificity was shown to reside in the peculiar regulation of ac and sc expression. These genes are first activated in complementary spatial domains in response to different cis-regulatory sequences. Each gene product then stimulates expression of the other gene, thus generating similar patterns of expression. Therefore, removal of one gene leads to the absence of both proneural gene products and sensory organs in the sites specified by its cis-regulatory sequences.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, C -- Modolell, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Mar 22;251(5000):1485-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centro de Biologia Molecular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1900954" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Drosophila melanogaster/embryology/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Nervous System/*embryology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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