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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-05-23
    Description: Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, 〉0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ~150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Vargas, Colomban -- Audic, Stephane -- Henry, Nicolas -- Decelle, Johan -- Mahe, Frederic -- Logares, Ramiro -- Lara, Enrique -- Berney, Cedric -- Le Bescot, Noan -- Probert, Ian -- Carmichael, Margaux -- Poulain, Julie -- Romac, Sarah -- Colin, Sebastien -- Aury, Jean-Marc -- Bittner, Lucie -- Chaffron, Samuel -- Dunthorn, Micah -- Engelen, Stefan -- Flegontova, Olga -- Guidi, Lionel -- Horak, Ales -- Jaillon, Olivier -- Lima-Mendez, Gipsi -- Lukes, Julius -- Malviya, Shruti -- Morard, Raphael -- Mulot, Matthieu -- Scalco, Eleonora -- Siano, Raffaele -- Vincent, Flora -- Zingone, Adriana -- Dimier, Celine -- Picheral, Marc -- Searson, Sarah -- Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie -- Tara Oceans Coordinators -- Acinas, Silvia G -- Bork, Peer -- Bowler, Chris -- Gorsky, Gabriel -- Grimsley, Nigel -- Hingamp, Pascal -- Iudicone, Daniele -- Not, Fabrice -- Ogata, Hiroyuki -- Pesant, Stephane -- Raes, Jeroen -- Sieracki, Michael E -- Speich, Sabrina -- Stemmann, Lars -- Sunagawa, Shinichi -- Weissenbach, Jean -- Wincker, Patrick -- Karsenti, Eric -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):1261605. doi: 10.1126/science.1261605.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de. ; CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. ; Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. ; Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science (ICM)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona E08003, Spain. ; Laboratory of Soil Biology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland. ; CNRS, FR2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 06, FR 2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. ; CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Ecole Normale Superieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. ; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Genomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91000 Evry, France. ; CNRS FR3631, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France. Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 06, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France. Ecole Normale Superieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. ; Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. ; Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. ; CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Oceanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. ; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Genomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91000 Evry, France. CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Universite d'Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. ; Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. ; Ecole Normale Superieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. ; MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. ; Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy. ; Ifremer, Centre de Brest, DYNECO/Pelagos CS 10070, 29280 Plouzane, France. ; Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Ecole Normale Superieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. ; Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Directors' Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Max-Delbruck-Centre for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany. ; CNRS UMR 7232, Biologie Integrative des Organismes Marins (BIOM), Avenue du Fontaule, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France. Sorbonne Universites Paris 06, Observatoire Oceanologique de Banyuls (OOB) UPMC, Avenue du Fontaule, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France. ; Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS IGS UMR 7256, 13288 Marseille, France. ; Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan. ; PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany. ; Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME 04544, USA. National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, USA. ; Department of Geosciences, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO)-Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer (IUEM), Place Copernic, 29820 Plouzane, France. ; Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Genomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91000 Evry, France. CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Universite d'Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de. ; Directors' Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Ecole Normale Superieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999516" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic ; DNA, Ribosomal/genetics ; Eukaryota/*classification/genetics ; Oceans and Seas ; Phylogeny ; Plankton/*classification/genetics ; Ribosomes/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sunlight
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-07-15
    Description: The formation of a complex nervous system requires the intricate interaction of neurons and glial cells. Glial cells generally migrate over long distances before they initiate their differentiation, which leads to wrapping and insulation of axonal processes. The molecular pathways coordinating the switch from glial migration to glial differentiation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that, within the Drosophila eye imaginal disc, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling coordinates glial proliferation, migration and subsequent axonal wrapping. Glial differentiation in the Drosophila eye disc requires a succession from glia-glia interaction to glia-neuron interaction. The neuronal component of the fly eye develops in the peripheral nervous system within the eye-antennal imaginal disc, whereas glial cells originate from a pool of central-nervous-system-derived progenitors and migrate onto the eye imaginal disc. Initially, glial-derived Pyramus, an FGF8-like ligand, modulates glial cell number and motility. A switch to neuronally expressed Thisbe, a second FGF8-like ligand, then induces glial differentiation. This switch is accompanied by an alteration in the intracellular signalling pathway through which the FGF receptor channels information into the cell. Our findings reveal how a switch from glia-glia interactions to glia-neuron interactions can trigger formation of glial membrane around axonal trajectories. These results disclose an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism of axonal wrapping, indicating that Drosophila might serve as a model to understand glial disorders in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franzdottir, Sigridur Rut -- Engelen, Daniel -- Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz -- Schmidt, Imke -- Aho, Annukka -- Klambt, Christian -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):758-61. doi: 10.1038/nature08167. Epub 2009 Jul 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut fur Neurobiologie, Universitat Munster, Badestr. 9, D-48149 Munster, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597479" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/metabolism ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Cell Proliferation ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/cytology/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Eye/*cytology/growth & development/innervation/metabolism ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/*metabolism ; Guinea Pigs ; Ligands ; Neuroglia/*cytology/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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