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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-12-24
    Description: Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns. Integrative analysis with other data (non-histone chromatin proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, GRO-Seq reads produced by engaged polymerase, short/long RNA products) reveals discrete characteristics of chromosomes, genes, regulatory elements and other functional domains. We find that active genes display distinct chromatin signatures that are correlated with disparate gene lengths, exon patterns, regulatory functions and genomic contexts. We also demonstrate a diversity of signatures among Polycomb targets that include a subset with paused polymerase. This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109908/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109908/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kharchenko, Peter V -- Alekseyenko, Artyom A -- Schwartz, Yuri B -- Minoda, Aki -- Riddle, Nicole C -- Ernst, Jason -- Sabo, Peter J -- Larschan, Erica -- Gorchakov, Andrey A -- Gu, Tingting -- Linder-Basso, Daniela -- Plachetka, Annette -- Shanower, Gregory -- Tolstorukov, Michael Y -- Luquette, Lovelace J -- Xi, Ruibin -- Jung, Youngsook L -- Park, Richard W -- Bishop, Eric P -- Canfield, Theresa K -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Thurman, Robert E -- MacAlpine, David M -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Kellis, Manolis -- Elgin, Sarah C R -- Kuroda, Mitzi I -- Pirrotta, Vincenzo -- Karpen, Gary H -- Park, Peter J -- R01 GM071923/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM082798/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM45744/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RC1 HG005334/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005639/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004258-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004279/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):480-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09725. Epub 2010 Dec 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179089" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/analysis/metabolism ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/embryology/*genetics/growth & development ; Exons/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genes, Insect/genetics ; Genome, Insect/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 ; RNA/analysis/genetics ; Sequence Analysis ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-06-13
    Description: Most natural actions are accomplished with a seamless combination of individual movements. Such coordination poses a problem: How does the motor system orchestrate multiple movements to produce a single goal-directed action? The results from current experiments suggest one possible solution. Oculomotor neurons in the superior colliculus of a primate responded to mismatches between eye and target positions, even when the animal made two different types of eye movements. This neuronal activity therefore does not appear to convey a command for a specific type of eye movement but instead encodes an error signal that could be used by multiple movements. The use of shared inputs is one possible strategy for ensuring that different movements share a common goal.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Krauzlis, R J -- Basso, M A -- Wurtz, R H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jun 13;276(5319):1693-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9180078" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Eye Movements/*physiology ; Fixation, Ocular/physiology ; Macaca mulatta ; Motor Neurons/*physiology ; Pursuit, Smooth/physiology ; Saccades/physiology ; Superior Colliculi/cytology/*physiology ; Visual Pathways
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-11-23
    Description: Oxamniquine resistance evolved in the human blood fluke (Schistosoma mansoni) in Brazil in the 1970s. We crossed parental parasites differing ~500-fold in drug response, determined drug sensitivity and marker segregation in clonally derived second-generation progeny, and identified a single quantitative trait locus (logarithm of odds = 31) on chromosome 6. A sulfotransferase was identified as the causative gene by using RNA interference knockdown and biochemical complementation assays, and we subsequently demonstrated independent origins of loss-of-function mutations in field-derived and laboratory-selected resistant parasites. These results demonstrate the utility of linkage mapping in a human helminth parasite, while crystallographic analyses of protein-drug interactions illuminate the mode of drug action and provide a framework for rational design of oxamniquine derivatives that kill both S. mansoni and S. haematobium, the two species responsible for 〉99% of schistosomiasis cases worldwide.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136436/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136436/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Valentim, Claudia L L -- Cioli, Donato -- Chevalier, Frederic D -- Cao, Xiaohang -- Taylor, Alexander B -- Holloway, Stephen P -- Pica-Mattoccia, Livia -- Guidi, Alessandra -- Basso, Annalisa -- Tsai, Isheng J -- Berriman, Matthew -- Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia -- Almeida, Marcio -- Aguilar, Hector -- Frantz, Doug E -- Hart, P John -- LoVerde, Philip T -- Anderson, Timothy J C -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 5R21-AI072704/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5R21-AI096277/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- C06 RR013556/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201000005I/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI097576/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI097576/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI072704/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI096277/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 13;342(6164):1385-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1243106. Epub 2013 Nov 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Biochemistry and Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263136" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Drug Resistance/*genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genetic Linkage ; Helminth Proteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Oxamniquine/*pharmacology ; Phylogeny ; Protein Conformation ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; RNA Interference ; Schistosoma mansoni/*drug effects/*genetics ; Schistosomicides/*pharmacology ; Sulfotransferases/chemistry/classification/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1996-09-13
    Description: The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is well known to act on the central nervous system in ways that mimic stress and result in decreases in exploration, increases in sympathetic activity, decreases in parasympathetic outflow, and decreases in appetitive behavior. Urocortin, a neuropeptide related to CRF, binds with high affinity to the CRF2 receptor, is more potent than CRF in suppressing appetite, but is less potent than CRF in producing anxiety-like effects and activation. Doses as low as 10 nanograms injected intracerebroventricularly were effective in decreasing food intake in food-deprived and free-feeding rats. These results suggest that urocortin may be an endogenous CRF-like factor in the brain responsible for the effects of stress on appetite.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spina, M -- Merlo-Pich, E -- Chan, R K -- Basso, A M -- Rivier, J -- Vale, W -- Koob, G F -- 1 F05 TW05262/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- DK 26741/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Sep 13;273(5281):1561-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute, 10666 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8703220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Appetite/*drug effects ; Appetite Depressants/administration & dosage/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Blood Pressure/drug effects ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Eating/drug effects ; Fasting ; Injections, Intraventricular ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism ; Urocortins ; Urotensins/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-03-26
    Description: Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 control the autoreactive components of the immune system. The development of T(reg) cells is reciprocally related to that of pro-inflammatory T cells producing interleukin-17 (T(H)17). Although T(reg) cell dysfunction and/or T(H)17 cell dysregulation are thought to contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders, little is known about the physiological pathways that control the generation of these cell lineages. Here we report the identification of the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) as a regulator of T(reg) and T(H)17 cell differentiation in mice. AHR activation by its ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induced functional T(reg) cells that suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. On the other hand, AHR activation by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole interfered with T(reg) cell development, boosted T(H)17 cell differentiation and increased the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Thus, AHR regulates both T(reg) and T(H)17 cell differentiation in a ligand-specific fashion, constituting a unique target for therapeutic immunomodulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Quintana, Francisco J -- Basso, Alexandre S -- Iglesias, Antonio H -- Korn, Thomas -- Farez, Mauricio F -- Bettelli, Estelle -- Caccamo, Mario -- Oukka, Mohamed -- Weiner, Howard L -- AI435801/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS38037/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS038037/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073542/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073542-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073542-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS059996/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01AI073542-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 May 1;453(7191):65-71. doi: 10.1038/nature06880. Epub 2008 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18362915" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carbazoles/metabolism/pharmacology ; *Cell Differentiation ; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/chemically induced/immunology ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Indoles/metabolism/pharmacology ; Interleukin-17/*metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/*cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin/metabolism/pharmacology ; Transforming Growth Factor beta1/immunology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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