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  • Alzheimer's disease  (3)
  • Springer  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: tau ; kinases ; signal transduction ; Alzheimer's disease ; phosphorylation ; paired helical filaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. The individual and sequential influence of protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) on human brain tau was examined. 2. A range of PKC concentrations generated certain phosphoepitopes common with paired helical filaments. These epitopes were masked by higher PKC concentrations, suggesting the presence of multiple tau phosphorylation sites for which PKC exhibited differing affinities and/or conformational alterations in tau induced by sequential PKC-mediated phosphorylation. 3. Prior phosphorylation by PKC enhanced the nature and extent of AD-like tau antigenicity generated by subsequent incubation with MAP kinase yet inhibited that generated by subsequent incubation with PKA. 4. Dephosphorylation of tau prior to incubation with kinases significantly altered the influence of individual and multiple kinase incubation on tau antigenicity in a site-specific manner, indicating that prior in situ phosphorylation events markedly influenced subsequent cell-free phosphorylation. 5. In addition to considerations of the potential impact of tau phosphorylation by individual kinases, these findings extend previous studies which indicate that tau antigenicity, and, presumably, its behavior in situ, is influenced by the sequential and convergent influences of multiple kinases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: MAP kinase ; tau ; protein kinase C ; wortmannin ; PD98059 ; neuroblastoma ; Alzheimer's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylates tau in cell-free analyses, but whether or not it does so within intact cells remains controversial. In the present study, microinjection of MAP kinase into SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells increased tau immunoreactivity toward the phosphodependent antibodies PHF-1 and AT-8. In contrast, treatment with a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase (PD98059) did not diminish “basal” levels of these immunoreactivities in otherwise untreated cells. These findings indicate that hyperactivation of MAP kinase increases phospho-tau levels within cells, despite that MAP kinase apparently does not substantially influence intracellular tau phosphorylation under normal conditions. These findings underscore that results obtained following inhibition of kinase activities do not necessarily provide an indication of the consequences accompanying hyperactivation of that same kinase. Several studies conducted in cell-free systems indicate that exposure of tau to multiple kinases can have synergistic effects on the nature and extent of tau phosphorylation. We therefore examined whether or not such effects could be demonstrated within these cells. Site-specific phospho-tau immunoreactivity was increased in additive and synergistic manners by treatment of injected cells with TPA (which activates PKC), calcium ionophore (which activates calcium-dependent kinases), and wortmannin (which inhibits PIP3 kinase). Alteration in total tau levels was insufficient to account for the full extent of the increase in phospho-tau immunoreactivity. These additional results indicate that multiple kinase activities modulate the influence of MAP kinase on tau within intact cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: tau ; phosphorylation ; signal transduction ; protein kinase C ; Alzheimer's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. The potential functions of the microtubule-associated protein tau have been expanded by the recent demonstration of its interaction with the plasma membrane. Since the association of tau with microtubules is regulated by phosphorylation, herein we examine whether or not the association of tau with the plasma membrane is also regulated by phosphorylation. 2. A range of tau isoforms migrating from 46 to 64 kDa was associated with crude particulate fractions derived from SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and were retained during the initial stages of plasma membrane purification. During the extensive washing utilized in purification of the plasma membrane, portions of each of these isoforms were depleted from the resultant purified membrane. Immunoblot analysis with phospho-dependent and -independent antibodies revealed selective depletion of phospho isoforms during membrane washing. This effect was more pronounced for the slowest-migrating (64-kDa) tau isoform. 3. This putative influence of phosphorylation on the association of tau with the plasma membrane was further probed by transfection of SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells with a tau construct that could associate with the plasma membrane but not with microtubules. Treatment with phorbol ester or calcium ionophore, both of which increased phospho-tau levels within the cytosol and plasma membrane, was accompanied by the dissociation of this tau construct from the membrane. 4. These data indicate that phosphorylation regulates the association with the plasma membrane. Dissociation from the membrane by phosphorylation may place tau at risk for hyperphosphorylation and ultimate PHF formation in a manner previously considered for tau dissociated from microtubules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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