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  • Aluminum toxicity  (2)
  • Growth rate  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 192 (1993), S. 104-109 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Aluminum toxicity ; Calcium displacement ; Electrical potential ; Root ; Triticum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Several mineral rhizotoxicities, including those induced by Al3+, H+, and Na+, can be relieved by elevated Ca2+ in the rooting medium. This leads to the hypothesis that the toxic cations displace Ca2+ from transport channels or surface ligands that must be occupied by Ca2+ in order for root elongation to occur. In this study with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings, we have determined, in the case of Al3+, that (i) Ca2+, Mg2+, and Sr2+ are equally ameliorative, (ii) that root elongation does not increase as Ca2+ replaces Mg2+ or Sr2+ in the rooting media, and (iii) that rhizotoxicity is a function solely of Al3+ activity at the root-cell membrane surface as computed by a Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. The rhizotoxicity was indifferent to the computed membrane-surface Ca2+ activity. The rhizotoxicity induced by high levels of tris(ethylenediamine)cobaltic ion (TEC3+), in contrast to Al3+, was specifically relieved by Ca2+ at the membrane surface. The rhizotoxicity induced by H+ exhibited a weak specific response to Ca2+ at the membrane surface. We conclude that the Ca2+-displacement hypothesis fails in the case of Al3+ rhizotoxicity and that amelioration by cations (including monovalent cations) occurs because of decreased membrane-surface negativity and the consequent decrease in the membrane-surface activity of Al3+. However, TEC3+, but not Al3+, may be toxic because it inhibits Ca2+ uptake. The nature of the specific H+-Ca2+ interaction is uncertain.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 192 (1993), S. 98-103 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Aluminum toxicity ; Calcium uptake ; Growth inhibition ; Root ; Triticum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cation Al3+ is toxic to plants at micromolar concentrations and can severely inhibit root growth in solution experiments. Trivalent aluminum hydrolyzes in solution, and, apart from the Al3+ ion, which dominates speciation below pH 5.0, various mononuclear and polynuclear hydroxy-Al species can also occur (Kinraide 1991). Accumulating evidence suggests that Al3+ is the rhizotoxic species under the experimental conditions used in the present study (Kinraide 1991; Kinraide et al. 1992). The inhibition of Ca2+ uptake in roots by Al3+ has been proposed as a possible mechanism for Al3+ toxicity, and in this study the hypothesis was tested directly. Root growth and Ca2+ uptake were measured in 5-d-old seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Thell) during exposure to Al3+ in a low-Ca2+ basal medium, and to Al3+ in the presence of added cations. Uptake of Ca2+ in whole roots and translocation to the shoot were measured using 45Ca2+, and localized measurements of net Ca2+ flux were also made at the root apex using the technique of microelectrode ion-flux estimation. Treatment with 2.64 μM AlCl3 in 226 μM CaCl2, at pH 4.5, severely inhibited root growth without affecting Ca2+ uptake. Addition of 30 mM Na2+, 3 mM Mg2+ or 50 μM tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) to this Al3+ treatment restored root growth but significantly reduced Ca2+ uptake measured over the entire root system and at the root apex. The Al3+ and Ca2+ concentrations were adjusted so that the activities of the Al3+ and Ca2+ ions were constant in all solutions (1.5 μM and 200 μM, respectively). Root growth can be severely inhibited by Al3+ concentrations that do not affect Ca2+ uptake, while the addition of ameliorating cations depresses Ca2+ uptake. These results argue against the hypothesis that Al3+ inhibits root growth by reducing Ca2+ uptake.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amazonia ; Batoidea ; Brazil ; Captive breeding ; Chondrichthyes ; Colombia ; Elasmobranchii ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Potamotrygonidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Observations of reproductive features and body measurements were made on wild-caught, freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro, from the Amazon drainage of western Brazil and southern Colombia. Further observations were made in Detroit's Belle Isle Aquarium on a captive pair of P. motoro and their descendants, which constitute the first known captive breeding colony of potamotrygonids. The gross structure and function of female and male reproductive systems are described. There is no obvious difference between those of the two species. They are aplacentally viviparous, the young being nourished in advanced stages by uterine milk secreted by trophonemata. Size at onset and completion of sexual maturation, breeding season and behavior, gestation period, litter size and sex ratios are discussed. Up to 21 proportional measurements were made on several fetal and postnatal stages of both species. Several proportional changes occur in very early fetal life, but most body proportions undergo only minor changes from advanced fetal through adult stages. A growth curve is proposed for P. motoro based on observations of the captive colony.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Batoids ; Chondrichthyes ; Costa Rica ; Elasmobranchs ; Euryhalinity ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Isolation of population ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Of a total of 377 Pristis perotteti tagged in the Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan System, 214 (56.8% were recovered. Eighty were recovered at the original tagging site; four moved downstream the full length of the river; and 127 tagged at the source of the river were recovered in all parts of the lake. Only one was recovered in a different river system, 58 km down the coast from the main mouth of the Río San Juan. A life span of 30 years is suggested, with rapid growth (30–40 cm per year) in the first three years, slowing to about 4 or 5 cm per year in the later years of life. Maximum sizes collected were 384 cm for males, 429 cm for females, smaller than maximum lengths reported elsewhere. The lake sawfish are not physically landlocked, but individuals remain in fresh water for very long periods; parturition takes place in fresh water; all sizes are found in the lake; and it appears that this stock finds all of its ecological needs met in the lake. Individuals may spend all of their lives in fresh water, although, as a species, P. perotteti has not completely abandoned the sea, since some are known to occur in salt water. The Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan sawfish are a discrete stock, with only limited gene flow with neighboring stocks. P. perotteti is farther along in its adaptation to fresh water, in being able both to osmoregulate and reproduce there, than other known euryhaline elasmobranchs, except for the African stingray, Dasyatis garouaensis, of the Niger-Benue System, and the completely adapted South American freshwater rays (family Potamotrygonidae).
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