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  • Iron  (5)
  • trace metals  (2)
  • Adsorption  (1)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20 (2006): GB1006, doi:10.1029/2005GB002557.
    Description: Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hot spots are ubiquitous in the upper 200 m at OSP, more than 900 km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hot spots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition.
    Description: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (KP1202030) to J. K. B and by NSFATM-9987457 to I. F. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences of the U.S. Department of Energy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.
    Keywords: Iron ; Continental margin ; HNLC ; Subarctic Pacific
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB4034, doi:10.1029/2009GB003500.
    Description: Climate change is projected to significantly alter the delivery (stratification, boundary currents, aridification of landmasses, glacial melt) of iron to the Southern Ocean. We report the most comprehensive suite of biogeochemical iron budgets to date for three contrasting sites in subantarctic and polar frontal waters south of Australia. Distinct regional environments were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply mechanisms, with higher iron stocks and fluxes observed in surface northern subantarctic waters, where atmospheric iron fluxes were greater. Subsurface waters southeast of Tasmania were also enriched with particulate iron, manganese and aluminum, indicative of a strong advective source from shelf sediments. Subantarctic phytoplankton blooms are thus driven by both seasonal iron supply from southward advection of subtropical waters and by wind-blown dust deposition, resulting in a strong decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles. We discuss the broader global significance our iron budgets for other ocean regions sensitive to climate-driven changes in iron supply.
    Description: T.W. was supported by a BDI grant from CNRS and Région PACA, by CNRS PICS project 3604, and by the “Soutien à la mer” CSOA CNRS-INSU. P.W.B. was supported by the New Zealand FRST Coasts and Oceans OBI. This research was supported by the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project 2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Southern Ocean ; Biogeochemical budget ; Subantarctic ; Polar ; Australian sector
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58 (2011): 2094-2112, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.027.
    Description: This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January–February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed between the 18 sampled profiles (i.e. 0.09–0.63 nmol/l dissolved Fe (dFe)). Average dFe concentrations in surface waters in the northern Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ-N) West (station P1) were 0.27±0.04 nmol/l. This is lower than in the SAZ-N East region (station P3 and around) where average dFe values in the mixed layer were 0.48±0.10 nmol/l. The Polar Front (PF) station (P2) exhibited the lowest average surface Fe values (i.e. 0.22±0.02 nmol/l). Iron concentrations in deep waters down to 1000 m were more uniform (0.25–0.37 nmol/l dFe), which is in accordance with values reported elsewhere in remote waters of the Southern Ocean, but lower than those observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. A strong decoupling was observed between dFe and nutrient cycles at all stations. Particulate Fe levels were generally very low for all SAZ stations (〈0.08 – 1.38 nmol/l), with higher values observed at stations collected near Tasmania and in the SAZ-N East region. The intrusion of subtropical waters, enriched with Fe from sediments or dust further north, is thought to mediate Fe input to the SAZ-N and STZ areas, while input from below would be the main source of Fe in the PF region. We applied the tracer Fe* (Fe*= [dFe]-RFe:P × [PO4 3-], where RFe:P is the algal uptake ratio) to estimate the degree to which the water masses were Fe limited. In this study, Fe* tended to be negative and decreased with increasing depths and latitude. Positive Fe* values, indicating Fe sufficiency, were observed in the (near-)surface waters collected in the SAZ-N East and near continental sources, where primary production was higher and ultimately limited by the lack of macro-nutrients, not Fe. Micro-organisms residing in the SAZ-N West and PF on the other hand experienced negative Fe*, indicating a strong co-limitation by low silicic acid concentration and Fe supply (and light in the case of PF).
    Description: This research was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (contracts SD/CA/03A, OA/00/025), the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Program through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project #2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Distributions ; Macro-nutrients ; Biogeochemistry ; Southern Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 35 (2008): L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL033294.
    Description: Here we show that labile particulate iron and manganese concentrations in the upper 500 m of the Western Subarctic Pacific, an iron-limited High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region, have prominent subsurface maxima between 100–200 m, reaching 3 nM and 600 pM, respectively. The subsurface concentration maxima in particulate Fe are characterized by a more reduced oxidation state, suggesting a source from primary volcagenic minerals such as from the Kuril/Kamchatka margin. The systematics of these profiles suggest a consistently strong lateral advection of labile Mn and Fe from redox-mobilized labile sources at the continental shelf supplemented by a more variable source of Fe from the upper continental slope. This subsurface supply of iron from the continental margin is shallow enough to be accessible to the surface through winter upwelling and vertical mixing, and is likely a key source of bioavailable Fe to the HNLC North Pacific.
    Description: Funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program (JB) and WHOI Postdoctoral Scholars program, the Richard B. Sellars Endowed Research Fund, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Endowed Fund for Innovative Research (PL).
    Keywords: Iron ; Continental margin ; HNLC
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 170 (2015): 49-60, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.01.006.
    Description: The natural radionuclides 231Pa and 230Th are incorporated into the marine sediment record by scavenging, or adsorption to various particle types, via chemical reactions that are not fully understood. Because these isotopes have potential value in tracing several oceanographic processes, we investigate the nature of scavenging using trans-Atlantic measurements of dissolved (〈0.45 μm) and particulate (0.8-51 μm) 231Pa and 230Th, together with major particle composition. We find widespread impact of intense scavenging by authigenic Fe/Mn (hydr)oxides, in the form of hydrothermal particles emanating from the Mid-Atlantic ridge and particles resuspended from reducing conditions near the seafloor off the coast of West Africa. Biogenic opal was not found to be a significant scavenging phase for either element in this sample set, essentially because of its low abundance and small dynamic range at the studied sites. Distribution coefficients in shallow (〈 200 m) depths are anomalously low which suggests either the unexpected result of a low scavenging intensity for organic matter or that, in water masses containing abundant organic-rich particles, a greater percentage of radionuclides exist in the colloidal or complexed phase. In addition to particle concentration, the oceanic distribution of particle types likely plays a significant role in the ultimate distribution of sedimentary 230Th and 231Pa.
    Description: Cruise management for GA03 was funded by the U. S. National Science Foundation to W. Jenkins (OCE-0926423), E. Boyle (OCE-0926204), and G. Cutter (OCE-0926092). Radionuclide studies were supported by NSF (OCE-0927064 to LDEO, OCE-0926860 to WHOI, OCE- 0927757 to URI, and OCE-0927754 to UMN). Additional support came from the European Research Council (278705) to LFR and the Ford Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship to SMV. Particle studies were supported by NSF OCE-0963026 to PJL.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Suspended particulate matter ; Adsorption ; Radioactive tracers ; Trace elements
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 116 (2015): 283-302, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.11.019.
    Description: In this paper, we present, describe, and model the first size-fractionated (0.8–51 µm; 〉51 µm) water-column particulate trace metal results from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect in situ pumping survey, with a focus on the lithogenic tracer elements Al, Fe and Ti. This examination of basin-wide, full-depth distributions of particulate elements elucidates many inputs and processes—some for bulk lithogenic material, others element-specific—which are presented via concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size-fractionation dynamics, and steady-state inventories. Key lithogenic inputs from African dust, North American boundary interactions, the Mediterranean outflow, hydrothermal systems, and benthic nepheloid layers are described. Using the refractory lithogenic tracer Ti, we develop a 1-D model for lithogenic particle distributions and test the sensitivities of size-fractionated open-ocean particulate Ti profiles to biotically driven aggregation, disaggregation rates, vertical sinking speeds, and dust input rates. We discuss applications of this lithogenic model to particle cycling in general, and to POC cycling specifically.
    Description: International and US GEOTRACES Offices (OCE-0850963 and OCE-1129603), and fellowship assistance from the Williams College Tyng Fellowship and MIT/WHOI Academic Programs Office to DCO.
    Keywords: Marine particles ; Lithogenic ; Particulate trace metals ; Aluminum ; Iron ; Titanium ; GEOTRACES ; Aeolian dust ; Aggregation ; Disaggregation ; Sinking speed ; Scavenging
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 32(12), (2019): 1738-1758, doi:10.1029/2018GB005994.
    Description: Sinking particles strongly regulate the distribution of reactive chemical substances in the ocean, including particulate organic carbon and other elements (e.g., P, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Al, and 232Th). Yet, the sinking fluxes of trace elements have not been well described in the global ocean. The U.S. GEOTRACES campaign in the North Atlantic (GA03) offers the first data set in which the sinking flux of carbon and trace elements can be derived using four different radionuclide pairs (238U:234Th ;210Pb:210Po; 228Ra:228Th; and 234U:230Th) at stations co‐located with sediment trap fluxes for comparison. Particulate organic carbon, particulate P, and particulate Cd fluxes all decrease sharply with depth below the euphotic zone. Particulate Mn, Cu, and Co flux profiles display mixed behavior, some cases reflecting biotic remineralization, and other cases showing increased flux with depth. The latter may be related to either lateral input of lithogenic material or increased scavenging onto particles. Lastly, particulate Fe fluxes resemble fluxes of Al and 232Th, which all have increasing flux with depth, indicating a dominance of lithogenic flux at depth by resuspended sediment transported laterally to the study site. In comparing flux estimates derived using different isotope pairs, differences result from different timescales of integration and particle size fractionation effects. The range in flux estimates produced by different methods provides a robust constraint on the true removal fluxes, taking into consideration the independent uncertainties associated with each method. These estimates will be valuable targets for biogeochemical modeling and may also offer insight into particle sinking processes.
    Description: This study grew out of a synthesis workshop at the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in August 2016. This workshop was sponsored by the U.S. GEOTRACES Project Office (NSF 1536294) and the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCP) Project Office (NSF 1558412 and NASA NNX17AB17G). The U.S. National Science Foundation supported all of the analytical work on GA03. Kuanbo Zhou measured 228Th in the large size class particles (NSF 0925158 to WHOI). NSF 1061128 to Stony Brook University supported the BaRFlux project, for which Chistina Heilbrun is acknowledged for laboratory and field work. The lead author acknowledges support from a start‐up grant from the University of Southern Mississippi. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their constructive comments. All GEOTRACES GA03 data used in this study are accessible through the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (http://data.bco‐dmo.org/jg/dir/BCO/GEOTRACES/NorthAtlanticTransect/), and derived parameters are reported in the supporting information.
    Description: 2019-05-22
    Keywords: biological carbon pump ; trace metals ; North Atlantic ; export ; GEOTRACES
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-10
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 33(1), (2019): 15-36, doi:10.1029/2018GB005985.
    Description: Better constraints on the magnitude of particulate export and the residence times of trace elements are required to understand marine food web dynamics, track the transport of anthropogenic trace metals in the ocean, and improve global climate models. While prior studies have been successful in constructing basin‐scale budgets of elements like carbon in the upper ocean, the cycling of particulate trace metals is poorly understood. The 238U‐234Th method is used here with data from the GP‐16 GEOTRACES transect to investigate the upper ocean processes controlling the particulate export of cadmium, cobalt, and manganese in the southeastern Pacific. Patterns in the flux data indicated that particulate cadmium and cobalt behave similarly to particulate phosphorus and organic carbon, with the highest export in the productive coastal region and decreasing flux with depth due to remineralization. The export of manganese was influenced by redox conditions at the low oxygen coastal stations and by precipitation and/or scavenging elsewhere. Residence times with respect to export (total inventory divided by particulate flux) for phosphorus, cadmium, cobalt, and manganese in the upper 100 and 200 m were determined to be on the order of months to years. These GEOTRACES‐based synthesis efforts, combining a host of concentration and tracer data with unprecedented resolution, will help to close the oceanic budgets of trace metals.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (OCE‐1232669 and OCE‐1518110), and Erin Black was also funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Graduate Fellowship (NNX13AP31H). The authors would like to thank the captain, crew, and scientists aboard the R/V Thomas G. Thompson. A special thanks to two anonymous reviewers and Virginie Sanial for providing the additional 228Ra‐based estimates for Cd. All original data have been made available in either the supporting information or through BCO‐DMO (see Website and Database References).
    Description: 2019-06-10
    Keywords: thorium ; export ; trace metals ; residence time
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