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  • Abyssal circulation  (3)
  • Ocean models  (3)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 37 (2007): 394-407, doi:10.1175/jpo3018.1.
    Description: The ability of paleoceanographic tracers to constrain rates of transport is examined using an inverse method to combine idealized observations with a geostrophic model. Considered are the spatial distribution, accuracy, and types of tracers required to constrain changes in meridional transport within an idealized single-hemisphere basin. Measurements of density and radioactive tracers each act to constrain rates of transport. Conservative tracers, while not of themselves able to inform regarding rates of transport, improve constraints when coupled with density or radioactive observations. It is found that the tracer data would require an accuracy one order of magnitude better than is presently available for paleo-observations to conclusively rule out factor-of-2 changes in meridional transport, even when assumed available over the entire model domain. When data are available only at the margins and bottom of the model, radiocarbon is unable to constrain transport while density remains effective only when a reference velocity level is assumed. The difficulty in constraining the circulation in this idealized model indicates that placing firm bounds on past meridional transport rates will prove challenging.
    Description: The first author is supported by the NOAA Postdoctoral Program in Climate and Global Change and GG by the National Ocean Partnership Program (ECCO). Author OM acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Tracers ; Transport ; Paleoclimatology ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 8059-8079, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0769.1.
    Description: We use the method of least squares with Lagrange multipliers to fit an ocean general circulation model to the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO) estimate of near sea surface temperature (NSST) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; circa 23–19 thousand years ago). Compared to a modern simulation, the resulting global, last-glacial ocean state estimate, which fits the MARGO data within uncertainties in a free-running coupled ocean–sea ice simulation, has global-mean NSSTs that are 2°C lower and greater sea ice extent in all seasons in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Increased brine rejection by sea ice formation in the Southern Ocean contributes to a stronger abyssal stratification set principally by salinity, qualitatively consistent with pore fluid measurements. The upper cell of the glacial Atlantic overturning circulation is deeper and stronger. Dye release experiments show similar distributions of Southern Ocean source waters in the glacial and modern western Atlantic, suggesting that LGM NSST data do not require a major reorganization of abyssal water masses. Outstanding challenges in reconstructing LGM ocean conditions include reducing effects from model biases and finding computationally efficient ways to incorporate abyssal tracers in global circulation inversions. Progress will be aided by the development of coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice inverse models, by improving high-latitude model processes that connect the upper and abyssal oceans, and by the collection of additional paleoclimate observations.
    Description: DEA was supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and NSF Grant OCE-1060735. OM acknowledges support from the NSF. GF was supported by NASA Award 1553749 and Simons Foundation Award 549931.
    Keywords: Ocean ; Abyssal circulation ; Sea surface temperature ; Paleoclimate ; Inverse methods ; Ocean models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 54 (2007): 557-585, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.01.002.
    Description: An inverse finite-difference model of the abyssal circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is developed in order to evaluate the dynamical information contained in measurements of thorium-230 (230Th). The model has a very coarse resolution and is based on lowest order balances for planetary flows. The naturally occurring 230Th differs from more conventional oceanic tracers in several respects, e.g., its production (by 234U radioactive decay) is globally uniform to a good approximation and its removal can be understood in terms of a simple reversible exchange with particles sinking slowly to the seafloor. The time required for 230Th to reach steady state with respect to particle exchange is estimated to increase with depth, reaching O(10) yr below 1000 m. In the North Atlantic 230Th activities at distant locations share a similar increase with depth in the upper 1000m—a pattern consistent with a reversible exchange—but show drastic differences in the abyssal interior. Two inversions are conducted in order to determine whether the 230Th differences reflect the effects of the circulation—by preventing the slow attainment to steady state w.r.t. particle exchange in deep water—and provide complementary information about the abyssal flow. In a first inversion, observations of density from a hydrographic compilation and of volume transports at specific locations are combined with the dynamical balances in order to infer the basin-scale flow. The inferred flow displays the western boundary current and coherent structures in the abyssal interior with low statistical significance. In a second inversion, the flow is further constrained by the 230Th measurements and the condition that 230Th divergence by the flow field and particle sinking must be locally balanced by 230Th production from 234U decay. The addition of 230Th leads to the estimation of a larger amplitude of the integrated meridional transports below 1000 m (by 2–9 Sv), where the range reflects the uncertainties in the large scale 230Th distribution and in the radiochemical balance. This result is interpreted as a correction by 230Th for the tendency of inverse geostrophic models to lead to the inference of a vanishing circulation when horizontal density gradients are insignificant.
    Description: OM acknowledges the support from the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at WHOI and from the US National Science Foundation. The IAEA (JS) is grateful for the support provided to its Marine Environment Laboratory by the Government of the Principality of Monaco. JS is grateful to Jan Fietzke for ICPMS measurements and for support from the ‘Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft’ (grant no. SCHO752/ 2-1).
    Keywords: Thorium-230 ; Abyssal circulation ; North Atlantic ; Inverse method
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 23 (2010): 4841–4855, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3273.1.
    Description: A 1-Myr-long time-dependent solution of a zonally averaged ocean–atmosphere model subject to Milankovitch forcing is examined to gain insight into long-term changes in the planetary-scale meridional moisture flux in the atmosphere. The model components are a one-dimensional (latitudinal) atmospheric energy balance model with an active hydrological cycle and an ocean circulation model representing four basins (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans). This study finds that the inclusion of an active hydrological cycle does not significantly modify the responses of annual-mean air and ocean temperatures to Milankovitch forcing found in previous integrations with a fixed hydrological cycle. Likewise, the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean is not significantly affected by hydrological changes. Rather, it mainly responds to precessionally driven variations of ocean temperature in subsurface layers (between 70- and 500-m depth) of this basin. On the other hand, annual and zonal means of evaporation rate and meridional flux of moisture in the atmosphere respond notably to obliquity-driven changes in the meridional gradient of annual-mean insolation. Thus, when obliquity is decreased (increased), the meridional moisture flux in the atmosphere is intensified (weakened). This hydrological response is consistent with deuterium excess records from polar ice cores, which are characterized by dominant obliquity cycles.
    Description: A. A. thanks the Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre of McGill University for a Network Grant that made possible an enriching twoweek stay at WHOI during June 2007. O. M. acknowledges support from theU.S.National Science Foundation. Support from a Canadian NSERC Discovery Grant awarded to L.A.M. is gratefully acknowledged.
    Keywords: Forcing ; Moisture ; Fluxes ; Ocean models ; Coupled models ; Southern Ocean ; Pacific Ocean ; Atlantic Ocean ; Indian Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008): 2014-2037, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3895.1.
    Description: An inverse method is used to evaluate the information contained in sediment data for the Atlantic basin during the Last Glacial Maximum (defined here as the time interval 18–21 kyr before present). The data being considered are an updated compilation of the isotopic ratios 18O/16O (δ18O) and 13C/12C (δ13C) of fossil shells of benthic foraminifera (bottom-dwelling organisms). First, an estimate of the abyssal circulation in the modern Atlantic is obtained, which is consistent with (i) climatologies of temperature and salinity of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, (ii) observational estimates of volume transport at specific locations, and (iii) the statements of a finite-difference geostrophic model. Second, estimates of water properties (δ18O of equilibrium calcite or δ18Oc and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon or δ13CDIC) derived from sediment data are combined with this circulation estimate to test their consistency with the modern flow. It is found that more than approximately 80% of water property estimates (δ18Oc or δ13CDIC) are compatible with the modern flow given their uncertainties. The consistency of glacial δ13CDIC estimates with the modern flow could be rejected after two assumptions are made: (i) the uncertainty in these estimates is ±0.1‰ (this uncertainty includes errors in sediment core chronology and oceanic representativity of benthic δ13C, which alone appears better than this value on average); and (ii) δ13CDIC in the glacial deep Atlantic was dominated by a balance between water advection and organic C remineralization. Measurements of δ13C on benthic foraminifera are clearly useful, but the current uncertainties in the distribution and budget of δ13CDIC in the glacial Atlantic must be reduced to increase the power of the test.
    Description: Support for this work comes from the U.S. National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Abyssal circulation ; Atlantic Ocean ; Paleoclimate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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