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  • Animals  (6)
  • ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS  (4)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The frequency of the astronomically important J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD at 2.7 THz (90/cm) has been measured with tunable FIR radiation with an accuracy of 150 kHz. This frequency is now known to sufficient accuracy for use in future astrophysical heterodyne observations of HD in planetary atmospheres (reported by Bezard et al., 1986) and in the interstellar medium (reported by Bussoletti et al., 1975).
    Keywords: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 330; L135
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.
    Keywords: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 371; L85
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Rotational and fine-structure transitions between the low rotational levels of the OH radical in its X 2Pi state have been observed in absorption in the laboratory. It has thus been possible to measure the frequencies of these transitions directly. The observations were made with tunable far-infrared radiation generated by mixing two chosen CO2 laser frequencies in a metal-insulator-metal diode; the far-infrared difference frequency was radiated from the diode's whisker antenna. The measurements have an accuracy of a few hundred kHz. They both confirm and improve on the best previous estimates, which were obtained by extrapolation of laser magnetic resonance data.
    Keywords: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 307; 410-413
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Using tunable far-infrared spectrometers with high-frequency stability and accuracy, the self-pressure broadening and shift of CH3CN are measured. Evidence of absorber-perturber resonance effects on the collisional line shape are obtained. This tests the theoretical model and its possible improvements and also allows predictions of broadening and shift for a large class of molecules. Moreover, the resonance effect produces a theoretical temperature dependence of self-broadening that is different from what is commonly assumed.
    Keywords: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
    Type: Physical Review A (ISSN 1050-2947); 45; 9 Ma
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-03-25
    Description: Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbot, Patrick -- Abe, Jun -- Alcock, John -- Alizon, Samuel -- Alpedrinha, Joao A C -- Andersson, Malte -- Andre, Jean-Baptiste -- van Baalen, Minus -- Balloux, Francois -- Balshine, Sigal -- Barton, Nick -- Beukeboom, Leo W -- Biernaskie, Jay M -- Bilde, Trine -- Borgia, Gerald -- Breed, Michael -- Brown, Sam -- Bshary, Redouan -- Buckling, Angus -- Burley, Nancy T -- Burton-Chellew, Max N -- Cant, Michael A -- Chapuisat, Michel -- Charnov, Eric L -- Clutton-Brock, Tim -- Cockburn, Andrew -- Cole, Blaine J -- Colegrave, Nick -- Cosmides, Leda -- Couzin, Iain D -- Coyne, Jerry A -- Creel, Scott -- Crespi, Bernard -- Curry, Robert L -- Dall, Sasha R X -- Day, Troy -- Dickinson, Janis L -- Dugatkin, Lee Alan -- El Mouden, Claire -- Emlen, Stephen T -- Evans, Jay -- Ferriere, Regis -- Field, Jeremy -- Foitzik, Susanne -- Foster, Kevin -- Foster, William A -- Fox, Charles W -- Gadau, Juergen -- Gandon, Sylvain -- Gardner, Andy -- Gardner, Michael G -- Getty, Thomas -- Goodisman, Michael A D -- Grafen, Alan -- Grosberg, Rick -- Grozinger, Christina M -- Gouyon, Pierre-Henri -- Gwynne, Darryl -- Harvey, Paul H -- Hatchwell, Ben J -- Heinze, Jurgen -- Helantera, Heikki -- Helms, Ken R -- Hill, Kim -- Jiricny, Natalie -- Johnstone, Rufus A -- Kacelnik, Alex -- Kiers, E Toby -- Kokko, Hanna -- Komdeur, Jan -- Korb, Judith -- Kronauer, Daniel -- Kummerli, Rolf -- Lehmann, Laurent -- Linksvayer, Timothy A -- Lion, Sebastien -- Lyon, Bruce -- Marshall, James A R -- McElreath, Richard -- Michalakis, Yannis -- Michod, Richard E -- Mock, Douglas -- Monnin, Thibaud -- Montgomerie, Robert -- Moore, Allen J -- Mueller, Ulrich G -- Noe, Ronald -- Okasha, Samir -- Pamilo, Pekka -- Parker, Geoff A -- Pedersen, Jes S -- Pen, Ido -- Pfennig, David -- Queller, David C -- Rankin, Daniel J -- Reece, Sarah E -- Reeve, Hudson K -- Reuter, Max -- Roberts, Gilbert -- Robson, Simon K A -- Roze, Denis -- Rousset, Francois -- Rueppell, Olav -- Sachs, Joel L -- Santorelli, Lorenzo -- Schmid-Hempel, Paul -- Schwarz, Michael P -- Scott-Phillips, Tom -- Shellmann-Sherman, Janet -- Sherman, Paul W -- Shuker, David M -- Smith, Jeff -- Spagna, Joseph C -- Strassmann, Beverly -- Suarez, Andrew V -- Sundstrom, Liselotte -- Taborsky, Michael -- Taylor, Peter -- Thompson, Graham -- Tooby, John -- Tsutsui, Neil D -- Tsuji, Kazuki -- Turillazzi, Stefano -- Ubeda, Francisco -- Vargo, Edward L -- Voelkl, Bernard -- Wenseleers, Tom -- West, Stuart A -- West-Eberhard, Mary Jane -- Westneat, David F -- Wiernasz, Diane C -- Wild, Geoff -- Wrangham, Richard -- Young, Andrew J -- Zeh, David W -- Zeh, Jeanne A -- Zink, Andrew -- BB/H022716/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):E1-4; author reply E9-10. doi: 10.1038/nature09831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21430721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Altruism ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cooperative Behavior ; Female ; Game Theory ; *Genetic Fitness ; Genetics, Population ; Heredity ; Humans ; Male ; *Models, Biological ; Phenotype ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sex Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zink, Katherine D -- Lieberman, Daniel E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16990. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bite Force ; Carnivory ; Diet/*history ; Female ; Food Handling/*history ; Goats ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae ; Humans ; Male ; Mastication/*physiology ; Meat/*history ; Particle Size ; Plants ; Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1992-12-11
    Description: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is frequently accompanied by the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) dementia complex. The role of specific HIV genetic elements in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease is not clear. Transgenic mice were constructed that contained the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of two CNS-derived strains and a T cell tropic strain of HIV-1. Only mice generated with CNS-derived LTRs directed expression in the CNS, particularly in neurons. Thus, some strains of HIV-1 have a selective advantage for gene expression in the brain, and neurons can supply the cellular factors necessary for their transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corboy, J R -- Buzy, J M -- Zink, M C -- Clements, J E -- AI27297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28748/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS07000/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1804-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1465618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/*physiology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1/*genetics ; Intestine, Small/physiology ; Lung/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Organ Specificity ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/physiology ; Thymus Gland/physiology ; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1992-02-28
    Description: Novel sol-gel synthetic techniques were used to immobilize copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), cytochrome c, and myoglobin (Mb) by encapsulation in stable, optically transparent, porous silica glass matrices under mild conditions such that the biomolecules retained their characteristic reactivities and spectroscopic properties. The resulting glasses allowed transport of small molecules into and out of the glasses at reasonable rates but nevertheless retained the protein molecules within their pores. Chemical reactions of the immobilized proteins could be monitored by means of changes in their visible absorption spectra. Silica glasses containing the immobilized proteins were observed to have similar reactivities and spectroscopic properties to those found for the proteins in solution. For example, encapsulated CuZnSOD was demetallated and remetallated, encapsulated ferricytochrome c was reduced and then reoxidized, and encapsulated met Mb was reduced to deoxy Mb and then reacted either with dioxygen to make oxy Mb or with carbon monoxide to make carbonyl Mb.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ellerby, L M -- Nishida, C R -- Nishida, F -- Yamanaka, S A -- Dunn, B -- Valentine, J S -- Zink, J I -- GM28222/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM08375/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Feb 28;255(5048):1113-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1312257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Cytochrome c Group/chemistry ; Gels ; *Glass ; Horses ; Myoglobin/chemistry ; Proteins/*chemistry ; Solutions ; Spectrum Analysis ; Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1990-11-30
    Description: Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a rare neurological disease in horses and sheep. The virus has not been classified because neither an infectious particle nor a specific nucleic acid had been identified. To identify the genome of BDV, a subtractive complementary DNA expression library was constructed with polyadenylate-selected RNA from a BDV-infected MDCK cell line. A clone (B8) was isolated that specifically hybridized to RNA isolated from BDV-infected brain tissue and BDV-infected cell lines. This clone hybridized to four BDV-specific positive strand RNAs (10.5, 3.6, 2.1, and 0.85 kilobases) and one negative strand RNA (10.5 kilobases) in BDV-infected rat brain. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone suggested that it represented a full-length messenger RNA which contained several open reading frames. In vitro transcription and translation of the clone resulted in the synthesis of the 14- and 24-kilodalton BDV-specific proteins. The 24-kilodalton protein, when translated in vitro from the clone, was recognized by antibodies in the sera of patients (three of seven) with behavioral disorders. This BDV-specific clone will provide the means to isolate the other BDV-specific nucleic acids and to identify the virus responsible for Borna disease. In addition, the significance of BDV or a BDV-related virus as a human pathogen can now be more directly examined.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉VandeWoude, S -- Richt, J A -- Zink, M C -- Rott, R -- Narayan, O -- Clements, J E -- RR00130/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR07002/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Nov 30;250(4985):1278-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Colorado State University, Lab Animal Resources, Fort Collins 80532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2244211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*blood ; Borna Disease/*microbiology ; Borna disease virus/*genetics/immunology ; Brain/microbiology ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mental Disorders/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; RNA, Viral/analysis/genetics ; Rats ; Transcription, Genetic ; Viral Proteins/*genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2008-03-18
    Description: Common human diseases result from the interplay of many genes and environmental factors. Therefore, a more integrative biology approach is needed to unravel the complexity and causes of such diseases. To elucidate the complexity of common human diseases such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity. In contrast to the blood expression profiles, we observed a marked correlation between gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping revealed a highly significant genetic component to gene expression traits, including a strong genetic effect of proximal (cis) signals, with 50% of the cis signals overlapping between the two tissues profiled. Here we demonstrate an extensive transcriptional network constructed from the human adipose data that exhibits significant overlap with similar network modules constructed from mouse adipose data. A core network module in humans and mice was identified that is enriched for genes involved in the inflammatory and immune response and has been found to be causally associated to obesity-related traits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Emilsson, Valur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Zhang, Bin -- Leonardson, Amy S -- Zink, Florian -- Zhu, Jun -- Carlson, Sonia -- Helgason, Agnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Mouy, Magali -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Eiriksdottir, Gudrun H -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Reynisdottir, Inga -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Helgadottir, Anna -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Gislason, Hjortur G -- Stefansson, Tryggvi -- Leifsson, Bjorn G -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Lamb, John R -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Reitman, Marc L -- Kong, Augustine -- Schadt, Eric E -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):423-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06758. Epub 2008 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Blood/metabolism ; Body Mass Index ; Cohort Studies ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Iceland ; Lod Score ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sample Size ; Waist-Hip Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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