In the CDM and many other hierarchical scenarios for the origins of large scale structure, the existence of luminous quasars at very high redshifts (z greater than 3 or 4) is difficult to understand, unless such objects form at the very highest peaks of the density field. One then might expect a strong clustering of quasars at large redshifts. This is a generic prediction for practically any reasonable primordial density fluctuation spectrum. For CDM, Efstathiou & Rees (1988) predicted that quasars at z greater than 4 should be clustered as strongly as the bright galaxies at z approx. than 0. Cole & Kaiser (1989) suggest that z greater than 4 quasars might represent greater than or approximately = 4(sigma) peaks of the density field and thus, should be clustered more strongly than galaxies at z approximately = 0. We are performing the following experiment: a search for quasars, AGN, or other discrete objects, e.g., starforming galaxies, near known, z greater than 4 quasars. In other words, use the early quasars as markers of possible protoclusters. This is a fairly basic test of our understanding of the formation of galaxies, large-scale structure, and the origin of the first quasars themselves.
NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 36-37