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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Copernicus satellite surveyed the spectral region near L alpha to obtain column densities of interstellar HI toward 100 stars. The distance to 10 stars exceeds 2 kpc and 34 stars lie beyond 1 kpc. Stars with color excess E(B-V) up to 0.5 mag are observed. The value of the mean ratio of total neutral hydrogen to color excess was found to equal 5.8 x 10 to the 21st power atoms per (sq cm x mag). For stars with accurate E(B-V), the deviations from this mean are generally less than a factor of 1.5. A notable exception is the dark cloud star, rho Oph. A reduction in visual reddening efficiency for the grains that are larger than normal in the rho Oph dark cloud probably explains this result. The conversion of atomic hydrogen into molecular form in dense clouds was observed in the gas to E(B-V) correlation plots. The best estimate for the mean total gas density for clouds and the intercloud medium, as a whole, in the solar neighborhood and in the plane of the galaxy is 1.15 atoms per cu. cm; those for the atomic gas and molecular gas alone are 0.86 atoms per cu cm and 0.143 molecules per cu cm respectively. For the intercloud medium, where molecular hydrogen is a negligible fraction of the total gas, atomic gas density was found to equal 0.16 atoms per cu cm with a Gaussian scale height perpendicular to the plane of about 350 pc, as derived from high latitude stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: X-681-77-255 , NASA-TM-78044
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Eighteen high dispersion International Ultraviolet Exploration spectra of 6 stars in the large magellanic cloud (LMC) 3 stars in the small magellanic cloud (SMC) and 2 foreground stars were studied. Fourteen spectra cover the wavelengths lambda 1150-2000 A and 4 cover lambda 1900-3200 A. All the Magellanic Cloud star spectra exhibit exceedingly strong interstellar absorption lines due to a wide range of ionization stages at galactic velocities and at velocities associated with the LMC or SMC. The analysis is restricted to the Milky Way absorption features. Toward the LMC stars, the strong interstellar lines have a positive velocity extension, which exceeds the extension recorded toward the SMC stars. The most straightforward interpretation of these velocity extensions is obtained by assuming that gas at large distances away from the plane of the galaxy participates in the rotation of the galaxy as found in the galactic disk.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center The Universe at Ultraviolet Wavelengths: The First Two Yrs. of Intern. Ultraviolet Explorer; p 611-612
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Ultraviolet extinction bumps are investigated in the interstellar extinction curves between 1800 and 3600 A for 36 stars which have (B-V) excesses ranging from 0.03 to 0.55 and are mostly confined to the brighter OB associations distributed along the galactic plane. Each extinction curve is found to have a broad bump which peaks near 2175 A and whose position and profile appear to be constant among all the stars. It is shown that the bump is probably interstellar in origin and that the constancy of its position and shape places such severe restrictions on grain geometrical parameters that classical scattering theory cannot be used to explain the feature unless the dust grains in widely separated regions of space and with very different physical conditions are assumed to have nearly identical size and shape distributions. Three extinction curves which extend to 1100 A are examined and found to have the same general characteristics as the others. Several extinction curves are analyzed for fine structure, but no convincing evidence is found in the present interval. Some processes are discussed which may be responsible for the bumps.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 199; July 1
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  • 4
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Recent information on the observed properties of interstellar dust is reviewed, with an attempt made to clarify some of the observational uncertainties associated with obtaining dust parameters. Attention is given to interstellar extinction, the interstellar dust distribution, the dust-to-gas ratio, and light scattering by dust grains. Interstellar polarization is also examined, along with heavy-element depletion in the interstellar medium, thermal emission from interstellar dust grains, diffuse interstellar features, and the composition and origin of interstellar grains.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Galactic absorption features observed in high-dispersion far-UV spectra of two Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stars obtained with the IUE satellite are discussed. The stars observed were HD 38268 (OB + WN5) and HD 38282 (WN6), which lie at a distance of about 55 kpc and in the galactic direction corresponding to a latitude of about -32 deg and a longitude of about 280 deg. The line of sight to these stars passes through the disk and halo of the Milky Way and the halo and disk of the LMC. Evidence is presented for the existence of a hot (somewhat below 1 million K), low-density (about 0.001 H atom per cu cm) Galactic corona.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 230
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The Copernicus UV telescope was used to measure equivalent widths of interstellar Fe II resonance lines toward 55 early-type stars; the measurements permit the determination of Fe II column densities. The depletion of interstellar gaseous iron was obtained by combining these measurements with the results from a previous atomic and molecular hydrogen survey program; the derived depletions refer mostly to matter in H I regions. As an example, the nearly normal gaseous iron abundance in the distant high-latitude intermediate-velocity cloud toward HD 93521 is consistent with the idea that these clouds are produced by galactic supernova explosions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 229
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Initial results are presented for a program to survey highly ionized gas in the Milky Way disk and halo. High-resolution IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) far-UV spectra were obtained for 12 stars at galactocentric distances less than 6 kpc. The stars are 0.7-2.2 kpc away from the plane. Most of the spectra contain exceedingly strong and broad interstellar absorption lines of weakly and highly ionized atoms. In addition to the normally strong lines of Si IV and C IV, strong interstellar NV lines have been detected in the spectra of eight stars. The detection of NV absorption (amounting to more than 10 times the predicted NV) provides an important new constraint on models for the origin of Galactic halo gas. A Galactic fountain operating in the presence of known UV and EUV radiation might explain the observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 295; L9-L12
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A study of ultraviolet interstellar extinction in and near the core of the 30 Doradus nebula is presented. The pair method is used to determine the shape of the ultraviolet extinction curve, and reddened stars from within 80 pc of the core and unreddened stars from a variety of locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are considered. All stars near the core appear to be reddened by E(B-V) = 0.09-0.16 with an extinction law similar to previous LMC extinction laws. Some stars, including R136a, R145, and R147, are additionally reddened by E(B-V) = 0.18 with a 'nebular-type' extinction law. A model consisting of a layer of 'LMC foreground dust' which affects all of the stars and a deeper layer of 'nebular dust' which affects some of the stars is used for an explanation of the extinction properties. The extinction curves are then applied to the ultraviolet energy distribution of R136a for a determination of its intrinsic continuum shape. Evidence showing that the brightest LMC OB supergiants have intrinsic (B-V) colors and UV-to-visual continuum slopes which are redder than expected is presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 279; 578-595
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The International Ultraviolet Explorer was used to obtain high-resolution, far-UV spectra of theta 1 A, theta 1 C, theta 1 D, and theta 2 A Orionis. The interstellar absorption lines in these spectra are discussed with an emphasis on the high-ionization lines of C IV and Si IV. Theta 2 A Ori has interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption of moderate strength at the velocity found for normal H II region ions. Theta 1 C Ori has very strong interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption at velocities blueshifted by about 25 km/s from that found for the normal H II region ions. The possible origin of the high-ionization lines by three processes is considered: X-ray ionization, collisional ionization, and UV photoionization. It is concluded that the C IV and Si IV ions toward theta 2 A and theta 1 C Ori are likely produced by UV photoionization of surrounding nebular gas. In the case of theta 1 C Ori, the velocity shift of the high-ionization lines may be produced through the acceleration of high-density globules in the core of the nebula by the stellar wind of theta 1 C Ori.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 255
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: UV spectra in the wavelength interval 1170-1270 A are presented for 53 early-type stars ranging in spectral type from O6.5 V to B2.5 IV. The sample includes four Wolf-Rayet stars, seven known Oe-Be stars, and six galactic halo OB stars. A qualitative analysis of the stellar N v doublet reveals that: (1) N v is present in all stars hotter and more luminous than type B0 for the main sequence, B1 for giants, and B2 for supergiants; (2) shell components of N v and an unidentified absorption feature at 1230 A are present in about half of the stars; (3) the column density of N v is well correlated with bolometric luminosity over the spectral range O6 to B2; and (4) the ratio of emission to absorption equivalent width is a factor of 2 smaller in the main sequence stars than in supergiants, which suggests that the wind structure changes as a star evolves. For several stars, this ratio is too small to be explained by traditional wind models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series; 48; Mar. 198
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